There are certainly at least two resins in the powder (which is known officially as Podophylli resina), one of them being soluble and the other insoluble in ether.
Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass.
Many other fossil resins more or less allied to amber have been described.
It is even richer in more herbaceous plants tolerant of a hot summer; giant Umbelliferae (such as Ferula) are especially characteristic and yield gum-resins which have long been reckoned valuable.
INCENSE, 'the perfume (fumigation) arising from certain resins and gum-resins, barks, woods, dried flowers, fruits and seeds, when burnt, and also the substances so burnt.
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
It is an excellent solvent for gums, resins, fats, &c.; sulphur, phosphorus and iodine also dissolve in it.
It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.
==Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of Alcohol== Alcohol is of great medicinal value as a solvent, being used to form solutions of alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, iodoform, &c. In strength of about 10% and upwards it is an antiseptic. If applied to the skin it rapidly evaporates, thereby cooling the skin and diminishing the amount of sweat excreted.
Certain resins are obtained in a fossilized condition, amber being the most notable instance of this class; African copal and the kauri gum of New Zealand are also procured in a semi-fossil condition.
The resins which are obtained as natural exudations are in general mixtures of different, peculiar acids, named the resin acids, which dissolve in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the resin acids are regenerated by treatment with acids.
Resins when soft are known as oleo-resins, and when containing benzoic or cinnamic acid they are called balsams. Other resinous products are in their natural condition mixed with gum or mucilaginous substances and known as gum-resins.
Many compound resins, however, from their admixture with essential oils, are possessed of distinct and characteristic odours.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
Forest products - gums and resins of various sorts, such as gutta-percha - are valuable articles of export.
Resins 8,216 8,209 2,500 2,325
It occurs naturally in some resins, especially in gum benzoin (from Styrax benzoin), in dragon's blood, and as a benzyl ester in Peru and Tolu balsams. It can be prepared by the oxidation of toluene, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and cinnamic acid; by the oxidation of benzene with manganese dioxide and concentrated sulphuric acid in the cold (L.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
Ethylene succinic acid occurs in amber, in various resins and lignites, in fossilized wood, in many members of the natural orders of Papaveraceae and Compositae, in unripe grapes, urine and blood.
PICRIC ACID, or [[Trinitrophenol, C6h2 Oh]] (N02)3 [22.214.171.124], an explosive and dyestuff formed by the action of concentrated nitric acid on indigo, aniline, resins, silk, wool, leather, &c. It is the final product of the direct nitration of phenol, and is usually prepared by the nitration of the mixture of phenol sulphonic acids obtained by heating phenol with concentrated sulphuric acid (E.
It is obtained on fusing many resins (galbanum, asafoetida, &c.) with caustic potash, or by the distillation of Brazil-wood extract.
It results in the alkaline fusion of many resins, and may be prepared by fusing ortho-phenolsulphonic acid, o-chlorphenol, o-bromphenol, and o-phenoldisulphonic acid with potash, or, better, by heating its methyl ether, guaiacol, C 6 H 4 (OH) (OCH 3), a constituent of beechwood tar, with hydriodic acid.
5 (phloroglucin) is obtained by the fusion of many resins and of resorcin with caustic alkali.
7-epE31,vOos or -rEpµcvOos), the oleo-resins which exude from certain trees, especially from some conifers such as Pinus sylvestris - and from the terebinth tree, Pistacia terebinthus, It was to the product of the latter, now known as Chian turpentine, that the term was first applied.
In their natural characters, turpentines are soft solids or semi-fluid bodies, consisting of resins dissolved in turpentine oil, the chief constituent of which is pinene.
Oil of Turpentine, or Turps, as a commercial product is obtained from all or any of these oleo-resins, but on a large scale only from crude or common turpentine.
The forest products of the state include rubber, resins, cabinet and dyewoods, deerskins, orchilla and ixtle fibre.
The oils are usually contained in special cells, glands, cavities, or canals within the plants either as such or intermixed with resinous substances; in the latter case the mixtures form oleo-resins, balsams or resins according as the product is viscid, or solid and hard.
Some of these, such as resins, gums, essential oils and fats, are readily obtained as natural exudations or by very simple manipulations, while others, such as the alkaloids, glucosides and vegetable acids, often require to be extracted by very complex processes.
In this group may be included the oleo-resins, such as copaiba, cubebs and Canada balsam; the gum-resins, such as asafetida, myrrh, ammoniacum and galbanum; and the true balsams, such as benzoin, storax, balsam of Tolu and balsam of Peru.
The resins when taken internally have much the same action as essential oils, which are closely allied chemically, while the benzoic and cinnamic acids in the balsams modify their actions very slightly.
There are also resins, a volatile oil and several other constituents.
Naphtha is preferable for oil seeds, as it extracts neither resins nor gummy matters from the oil seeds, and takes up less colouring matter than carbon bisulphide.
Aldehydes are converted into resins by the action of caustic alkalies.
Many species are rich in gums and resins; the calambac, mastic, copal, cedar, &c. Many others are oleaginous, among them, peanuts, sun-flowers, the bene seed (sesame), corozo, almond and palmachristi.
The prevalent bush plants are khansa (umbrella mimosa), acacias, aloes, and, especially, Boswellia and Commiphora, which yield highly fragrant resins and balsams, such as myrrh, frankincense (olibanum) and " balm of Gilead."
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
Taking as a basis the nature of the source of compounds, he framed three classes: " mineral," comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vegetable," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c.; and " animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta.
Resin soaps are compounds of soda or potash with the complex acids (chiefly abietic) of which coniferous resins consist.
Many species produce gums and resins, their stems being encrusted with the exudations, and pungency and aromatic odour is an almost universal quality of the plants of desert regions.
With regard to the imports into Russia-they consist mainly of raw materials and machinery for the manufactures, and of provisions, the principal items being raw cotton, 17% of the aggregate; machinery and metal goods, 13%; tea, 5%; mineral ores, 5%; gums and resins, 4%; wool and woollen yarns, 32%; textiles, 3%; fish, 3%; with leather and hides, chemicals, silks, wine and spirits, colours, fruits, coffee, tobacco and rice.