Resin soaps are compounds of soda or potash with the complex acids (chiefly abietic) of which coniferous resins consist.
Allingite, a fossil resin allied to succinite, from Switzerland.
It is the chief mart in the empire for resin and palm-oil.
All the species exude resin, but no turpentine.
Tar), the gum-resin of the Balsamodendron Myrrha of the Somali country and opposite shore of Arabia; onycha (Heb.
The properties of podophyllin resin vary with the reaction of the tissue with which it is in contact; where this is acid the drug is inert, the picro-podophyllin being precipitated.
The process is repeated every alternate year, until the tree no longer yields the resin in abundance, which under favourable circumstances it will do for twenty years or more.
- Fibre is obtained from the aloe plants, this industry being in the hands of women; ostriches are reared for the sake of their feathers, and large quantities of gum and resin are collected.
The presence of more than a small percentage of resin in the latex leads to the production of rubber containing much resin, which seriously depreciates its commercial value for most purposes.
The percentage of resin in a good rubber should be as small as possible, and should in any case be less than to %.
There is no feasible method at present known of preventing the inclusion of the resin of the latex with the rubber during coagulation, and although the separation of the resin from the solid caoutchouc by means of solvents is possible, it is not practicable or profitable commercially.
Hevea and Castilloa, the resin is present in large proportion in the latex derived from young trees, and diminishes in amount as the tree ages.
Tsori), the oleo-resin of Balsamodendron opobalsamum and B.
Olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.
The Sangre del drago of the Mexicans is a resin resembling dragon's blood obtained from a euphorbiaceous tree, Croton Draco.
They worshipped Re at sunrise with resin, at mid-day with myrrh and at sunset with an elaborate confection called kuphi, compounded of no fewer than sixteen ingredients, among which were honey, wine, raisins, resin, myrrh and sweet calamus.
The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid.
Fragments of wood not infrequently occur, with the tissues well-preserved by impregnation with the resin; while leaves, flowers and fruits are occasionally found in marvellous perfection.
The abnormal development of resin has been called "succinosis."
Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.
Glessite, a nearly opaque brown resin, with numerous microscopic cavities and dusty enclosures, named from glesum, an old name for amber.
Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
Chemawinite or cedarite is an amber-like resin from the Saskatchewan river in Canada.
Of the suspended substances, grains of caoutchouc, drops of resin and oil, proteid crystals and starch grains may be mentioned.
In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.
When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.
But mixed with the oak and chestnut or higher up are considerable hickory, birch and maple; farther up the mountain sides are some hemlock and white pine; and on the swamp lands of the Coastal Plain are much cypress and some cedar, and on the Coastal Plain south of the Neuse there is much long-leaf pine from which resin is obtained.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
From the widespreading roots string and ropes are manufactured in Lapland and Bothnia: the longer ones which run near the surface are selected, split through, and then boiled for some hours in a ley of wood-ashes and salt, which, dissolving out the resin, loosens the fibres and renders them easily separable, and ready for twisting into cordage.
The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.
It forms extensive forests in Vancouver Island, British Columbia and Oregon, whence the timber is exported, being highly prized for its strength, durability and even grain, though very heavy; it is of a deep yellow colour, abounding in resin, which oozes from the thick bark.
A soap so made is not the result of saponification but of a simple combination, as is the case also with resin soaps.
The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.
Ox and sheep tallow, with the addition of resin, are the primary materials for making the hard yellow or primrose soaps; these tallows are often adulterated.
Suppose that a pure soap without resin is to be made - a product little seen in the market - the spent lye is run off, steam is again turned on, pure water or very weak lye run in, and the contents boiled up till the whole is thin, close and clear.
It may be skimmed off the underlye and placed direct in the frames for solidification; but that is a practice scarcely at all followed, the addition of resin soap in the pan and the subsequent " crutching in " of silicate of soda and adulterant mixings being features common to the manufacture.
Yellow Soap consists of a mixture of any hard fatty soap with a variable proportion - up to 40% or more - of resin soap. That substance by itself has a tenacious gluey consistence, and its intermixture in excess renders the resulting compound soft and greasy.
The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
The resin yielded by the Pistachia Lentiscus.
They are found, however, to be rich in resin, containing 18%.
The resin does not affect the unbroken skin.
The bark, resin and " oils " of the eucalyptus are well known as commercial products.
35 is described under another Hebrew word, and refers to ladanum, a fragrant resin produced in Cyprus, and the use of this drug, as well as that of cinnamon and cassia, indicates even at that early period a knowledge of the products of Somaliland, Arabia and the East Indies and the existence of trade between the farther East and Egypt.
Outflows of resinResinosisalro come under this general heading; but although some resin-fluxes are traced to the destructive action of Agaricus melleus in Conifers, others, as well as certain forms of Gummosis, are still in need of explanation.
It will not dissolve in water as gums do, but it is soluble in alcohol, as resin usually is.
Krantzite, a soft amber-like resin, found in the lignites of Saxony.
Sulphur is present to the extent of more than i %, whence the smell of suiphuretted hydrogen when the resin is heated.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
There are four classes in Somaliland: (I) nomads who breed ponies, sheep, cattle and camels, live entirely on milk and meat, and follow the rains in search of grass; (2) settled Somali, comparatively few, living in or near the coasts; (3) outcast races, not organized in tribes but living scattered all over Somaliland; they are hunters, workers in iron and leather, and the chief collectors of gum and resin; (4) traders.
The important exports are gums and resin, fibre, hides, ivory, ostrich feathers, coffee, ghee, livestock, gold ingots from Abyssinia and mother-of-pearl; the shells being found along the coast from Zaila to beyond Berbera.
In the industrial working of indiarubber, the various impurities present in the crude " wild rubber (bark, dirt and the principal impurities derived from the latex, except resin) are removed by the following process: The lumps of crude caoutchouc are first softened by the prolonged action of hot water, and then cut into slices by means of a sharp knife - generally by hand, as thus any large stones or other foreign substances can be removed.
The Brazilian flora is also rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, dye-woods, and a wide range of gum and resin-producing shrubs and trees.
Bdolah), the resin produced by Balsamodendron roxburghii, B.
That the domestic use, however, of the fragrant wood 660v (the Arbor vitae or Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, the source of the resin sandarach) was known in the Homeric age, is shown by the case of Calypso (Od.
Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond the administrative border, but the quality of the fossil resin is not very good.
The dose of jalap is from five to twenty grains, the British Pharmacopeia directing that it must contain from 9 to II% of the resin, which is given in doses of two to five grains.
The chief constituents of jalap resin are two glucosides - convol- vulin.
The eucalypts are remarkable for the oil secreted in their leaves, and the large quantity of astringent resin of their bark.
Lebonah), the gum-resin of Boswellia Frereana and B.