ACID-AMIDES, chemical compounds which may be considered as derived from ammonia by replacement of its hydrogen with acidyl residues, the substances produced being known as, primary, secondary or tertiary amides, according to the number of hydrogen atoms replaced.
The residues from petroleum distillation have been shown to contain very dense solids and liquids of high specific gravity, having a large proportion of carbon and possessed of remarkable fluorescent properties.
The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
In the earlier stages of the development of the manufacture of mineral lubricating oils, the residues were distilled in cast-iron stills, and the lubricating properties of the products thus obtained were injured by overheating.
The metal may be obtained from the residues obtained in the separation of osmium from osmiridium.
According to Gerhardt, the process of substitution consisted of the union of two residues to fo- m a unitary whole; these residues, previously termed " compound radicals," are atomic complexes which remain over from the interaction of two compounds.
Thus, he interpreted the interaction of benzene and nitric acid as C6H61-HN03 = C 6 H 5 NO 2 +H 2 0, the "residues" of benzene being C 6 H 5 and H, and of nitric acid HO and N02.
Substituting one hydroxyl group into each of these residues, we obtain radicals of the type - CH 2.
A second hydroxyl group may be introduced into the residues - CH 2.
In general, the aliphatic residues in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene.
Under the general heading "Algebra and Theory of Numbers" occur the subheadings "Elements of Algebra," with the topics rational polynomials, permutations, &c., partitions, probabilities; "Linear Substitutions," with the topics determinants, &c., linear substitutions, general theory of quantics; "Theory of Algebraic Equations," with the topics existence of roots, separation of and approximation to, theory of Galois, &c. "Theory of Numbers," with the topics congruences, quadratic residues, prime numbers, particular irrational and transcendental numbers.
If the retardation be too little, the overlapping of the processions is incomplete, so that besides the procession of half period there are residues of the original processions of full period.
The Bolivian tin ore is treated by first extracting the silver by amalgamation, &c., and afterwards concentrating the residues; there are, however, considerable difficulties in the way of treating the poorer of these very complex ores, and several chemical processes for extracting their metallic contents have been worked out.
Cohnheim's hypothesis of " embryonic residues " provides that early in the development of the embryo some of the cells, or groups of cells, are separated from their organic continuity during the various foldings that take place in the actively growing embryo.
It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.
Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.
For the carrying on of their functions they all need to be supplied with carbohydrates or other carbon compounds which they obtain ordinarily from humus and plant residues in the soil, or possibly in some instances from carbohydrates manufactured by minute green algae with which they live in close union.
This is due to the nitrogenous root residues left in the land.
Supposing the last of these preliminary distillations to have been completed, the residues left in the retorts are removed, and the retorts, as they lie in the hot furnace, are charged by mean: of semi-cylindrical shovels, and their adapters put on.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
Plattner, who suggested that the residues from certain mines at Reichenstein, in Silesia, should be treated with chlorine after the arsenical products had been extracted by roasting.
In the liquation process the ore is heated in inclined cylindrical retorts, and the molten metal is tapped at the lower end; the residues being removed from the upper end.
The residues (the Mint " sweep ") are sold to refiners or ore-smelters.
A third oil was obtained by heating the liver-residues to above the boiling-point of water, whereupon a black product, technically called "brown oil," separated.
He was a man of more promise than performance, and his chief achievement was the discovery of the elements iridium and osmium, which he found in the residues from the solution of platinum ores (1804).
It is almost impossible to prepare a pure hydrated manganese dioxide owing to the readiness with which it loses oxygen, leaving residues of the type xMnO yMn0 2.
Bunsen and Kirchhoff (Ann., 1860, 113, p. 337), in the spectroscopic examination of the residues obtained on evaporation of water from a mineral spring at Diirkheim, being characterized by two distinctive red lines.
The term is applied to different varieties of wines according to the district, but in the neighbourhood of Tokay it generally refers to wines obtained by treating szamorod or Ausbruch residues with dry wine.
" The residues on the calico filters are transferred to a large one of the same material and well pressed.
Running through these volumes in order, we have in the second the memoir, Summatio quarundam serierum singularium, the memoirs on the theory of biquadratic residues, in which the notion of complex numbers of the form a--bi was first introduced into the theory of numbers; and included in the Nachlass are some valuable tables.
In this process, the residues are boiled with a dilute sulphuric acid to which nitric acid and potassium chlorate are added in order to transform the element into selenic acid, H 2 Se0 4, which is then reduced to selenious acid, H 2 Se0 3, by boiling with hydrochloric acid, and finally to selenium by sulphur dioxide.
Wehler (Ann., 1859, 109, p. 375) heats the well-washed chamber residues with potassium nitrate and carbonate in order to obtain an alkaline selenate, which is then boiled with hydrochloric acid, yielding selenious acid, from which the element is obtained as above; whilst H.
But its chief technical application depends upon the formation of sulphonic acids when it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbon residues; these compounds being important either as a step towards the preparation of hydroxy-compounds, e.g.
Most of the pyrites consumed in the United Kingdom come from Spain; this Spanish pyrites generally (not always) contains enough copper (say 3 or 4%) to make its extraction from the residues ("cinders) a paying process, and this of course cheapens the price of the sulphur to the acid manufacturer.
Upon these follow special methods of induction applicable to quantity, viz., the method of curves, the method of means, the method of least squares and the method of residues, and special methods depending on resemblance (to which the transition is made through the law of continuity), viz.
In 1855 Adolph Wurtz had shown that when sodium acted upon alkyl iodides, the alkyl residues combined to form more complex hydrocarbons; Fittig developed this method by showing that a mixture of an aromatic and alkyl haloid, under similar treatment, yielded homologues of benzene.
In general these compounds are decomposable by heat, but some of them, such as those of gold, silver, copper and the alkali metals, even when heated above the boiling point of mercury retain mercury and leave residues of definite composition.
Those in which the keto groups are in combination with phenyl residues give pyridine derivatives on treatment with hydroxylamine, thus benzamarone, C 6 H 5 CH[CH(C 6 H 5) CO.
If a solution of potassium acetate be electrolysed the products are ethane, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; in a similar manner, normal potassium succinate gives ethylene, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; these reactions may be represented: CH 3 ï¿½CO 2;K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 ï¿½CO 2 1K CH 2 CO 2 K' --> I + + I I -i iI + CH 3 ï¿½CO 21 K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 ï¿½CO 2 iK CH 2 CO 2 K' By electrolysing a solution of potassium ethyl succinate, KO 2 Cï¿½(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, the KO 2 Cï¿½ groups are split off and the two residues ï¿½(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 combine to form the ester (CH2)4(C02C2H5)2.