The numerous concordats concluded towards the middle of the 19th century with several of the South American republics either have not come into force or have been denounced and replaced by a more or less pacific modus vivendi.
Had been located by the commissioners of the two republics with the exception of four sections.
The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay rose in armed revolt, and finally established themselves as separate republics, whilst the city of Buenos Aires itself was torn with faction and the scene of many a sanguinary fight.
Akers, Argentine, Patagonian and Chilian Sketches (London, 1893), and A History of South America 1854-1904 (New York, 1905); Theodore Child, The Spanish-American Republics (London, 1891); Sir T.
Zeballos, Description Amena de la Republica Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1881); Anuario de la Direcion General de Estadistica 1898 (Buenos Aires, 1899); Charles Wiener, La Republique Argentine (Paris, 1899); Segundo Censo Republica Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1898); Handbook of the Argentine Republic (Bureau of the American Republics, Washington, 1892-1903).
CARROCCIO, a war chariot drawn by oxen, used by the medieval republics of Italy.
Accounts of the carroccio will be found in most histories of the Italian republics; see for instance, M.
Thus grew up a number of municipalities - practically self-governing republics - semiindependent feudatories in the feudal state.
This Committee consists of 75 members, sending representatives to Moscow to the meetings of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Federation of Soviet Republics, but the Turkestan Republic showed itself very little inclined to accept the control which the Central Committee at Moscow endeavoured to maintain.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
By the consolidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by recognizing the over-lordship of the papal see, the house of Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of the peninsula.
In the republics, as we begin to know them after the war of investitures, government was carried on by officers called consuls, varying in number according to custom and according to the division of the town into districts.
The purely selfish bond between condottieri and their employers, whether princes or republics, involved intrigues and treachery, checks and counterchecks, secret terror on the one hand and treasonable practice on the other, which ended by making statecraft in Italy synonymous with perfidy.
The first entry of any moment made by the Venetians into strictly Italian affairs was in 1336, when the republics of Florence and St Mark allied themselves against Mastino della Scala, and the latter took possession of Treviso.
Pisas maritime power having been extinguished in the battle of Meloria (1284), the two surviving republics had no rivals.
The five great powers, with their satellitesdukes of Savoy and Co~n~ede~ Urbino, marquesses of Ferrara and Mantua, republics Italy.
Of free commonwealths there now survived only Venice, which, together with Spain, achieved for Europe the victory of Lepanto in 1573; Genoa, which, after the ineffectual Fieschi revolution in 1547, abode beneath the rule of the great Doria family, and held a feeble sway in Corsica; and the two insignificant republics of Lucca and San Marino.
The republics set up by the French at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French troops retired; and a reaction in favor of clerical and Austrian influence set in with great violence.
Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics (reconstituted soon after Marengo) were recognized by Austria on condition that they were independent of France.
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
Hence, even in countries where the Roman Church is established, such as Belgium, Italy, the Catholic states of Germany and cantons of Switzerland, most of the Latin republics of America, and the province of Quebec, and a fortiori where this Church is not established, there is now no discipline over the laity, except penitential, and no jurisdiction exercised in civil suits, except possibly the matrimonial questions of princes (of which there was an example in the case of the reigning prince of Monaco).
While the republics of Italy, and above all the state of Venice, were engaged in distributing the rich products of India and the Far East over the Western world, it was impossible that motives of curiosity, as well as a desire of commercial advantage, should not be awakened to such a degree as to impel some of the merchants to visit those remote lands.
Republics, although represented in Europe, are the peculiar form of government of America and are unknown in Asia.
The ultimate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be the geographical diversity of the country.
Martin, Through Five Republics (London, 1905); Anuario Estadistico and Anuario Demografico (official, Montevideo); British and American Consular Reports; Publications, Bureau of American Republics.
To not a few it would seem a contradiction to speak of nobility or aristocracy in a republic. Yet, though many republics have eschewed nobility, there is nothing in a republican, or even in a democratic, form of government inconsistent with the existence of nobility; and it is only in a republic that aristocracy, in the strict sense of the word, can exist.
Until 1857 Liberia consisted of two republics - Liberia and Maryland.
There can be little doubt but that the United States would long ago have disintegrated into separate, warring republics, had they not been bound together by railways, and standards of safety were 1 These figures are derived from a total.
In the 12th century it was a free city, governed by a podesta and consuls after the model of the Italian republics, which it also emulated in commerce and navigation.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
The union of these republics took place on the 15th of July 1797.
True, she now agreed to recognise the independence of the Cisalpine, Ligurian, Helvetic and Batavian (Dutch) republics; but the masterful acquisitiveness of the First Consul and the weak conduct of Austrian and British affairs at that time soon made that clause of the treaty a dead letter.
The matter was of international importance; for by the treaty of Luneville (February 1801) he had bound himself to respect the independence of the two republics of North Italy, the Cisalpine and the Ligurian.
True to his Corsican instinct of attachment to the family, and contempt for legal and dynastic claims, he now began to plant his brothers and other relatives in what had been republics established by the French Jacobins.
But the quarrel between the republics, both fighting for trade supremacy - that is to say, for their lives - could not come to an end till one or other was thoroughly crushed.
After the Jameson raid and the Emperor's telegram to President Kruger, in the drafting of which Baron Marschall, according to the later testimony now available, bore a leading part, it was he who declared in the Reichstag that the maintenance of the independence of the Boer republics was a " German interest."
Luis Potosi (1: 250,000), of the environs of Puebla (1: 50,000) and a Carta general de la republics mexicana (1: 250,000).
The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.
The product of the elevated inland regions is good, but the costs of transportation and the small profits afforded have prevented its extensive cultivation, and it is imported from the La Plata republics for consumption along the coast.
The dried leaves and smaller twigs of mate (Paraguayan tea-hlex paraguayensis) are exported to the southern Spanish American republics, where (as in Rio Grande do Sul) the beverage is exceedingly popular.
Had the fusion of the two little republics which Pretorius sought to bring about, and from which apparently the Free State was not averse, actually been accomplished in 1860, it is more than probable that a republican state on liberal lines, with some prospect of permanence and stability, might have been formed.
On the western border, where the natives were of less warlike character than those on their southern and northern frontiers, intrigues were already going on with petty tribal chiefs, and the Boers drove out a portion of the Barolongs from their lands, setting up the so-called republics of Stellaland and Goshen.
This protest had no effect upon the freebooters, who issued one proclamation after another, until in November 1883 they united the two new republics under the title of the " United States of Stellaland."
The military strength of the two republics was practically an unknown quantity.
As was to be subsequently shown, the hostilities were not confined to opposition from the fighting strength of the two, little republics alone; the British had to face Dutch opposition in their own colonies.
The total fighting strength of the Boer republics is difficult to ascertain exactly.
The Natal invaders fell back to the mountains which enclose the north of the colony; Oliver and Schoeman retired from Cape Colony before the small forces of Gatacre and Clements; and the presidents of the republics, realizing that the British Empire was capable of more resistance than they had calculated upon, put forward feelers aiming at the restoration of the status quo before the war.
The first includes the children of Venezuelan parents born in foreign countries; the latter comprises four classes: natives of Spanish-American republics, foreignborn persons, foreigners naturalized through special laws and foreign women married to Venezuelans.
C. Dawson, The South American Republics, vol ii.
Martin, Through Five Republics of South America (London, 1905); Bartolome Mitre (condensed translation by William Pilling), The Emancipation of South America (London, 1893); G.
Scruggs, The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics (2nd ed., Boston, 1905); W.
Of American Republics] (Washington, 1904); F, Vizcarrondo Rojas, Resena Geografica de Venezuela (Caracas, 1895); R.
By treaty between the South African Republic (then comprising the districts of Potchefstroom, Rustenburg, Pretoria and Zoutpansberg) and the republic of Lydenburg, concluded at Pretoria in 1860, the two republics were united and Pretoria chosen as the capital of the whole state, and in September of that year the Volksraad held its first meeting in the new capital.
The somatic cells represent communities or republics, as it were, which we name organs and tissues, but each cell possesses a certain autonomy and independence of action, and exhibits phenomena which are indicative of vitality.
The Ghibellines being unable to maintain their supremacy, the city came to be divided into two almost autonomous republics, the comune headed by the podestd, and the popolo headed by the capitano and militarily organized into twenty companies; the central power was represented by twelve anziani or elders.
From 1655 to 1850 Great Britain claimed a protectorate over the Mosquito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavours to plant colonies, and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American republics, and the United States.
The two republics contested the dominion of the sea, and both claimed supreme power over the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.
The question of the delimitation of the frontier between Peru and the neighbouring republics of Ecuador, Colombia,.
An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia.
Republics consist of codified laws that apply to everyone, regardless of public sentiment.