The first steps toward this change had been taken, however, by the Republicans in 1870.
The court accused him of being at the bottom of every popular movement, and saw the "gold of Orleans" as the cause of the Reveillon riot and the taking of the Bastille, as the republicans later saw the "gold of Pitt" in every germ of opposition to themselves.
After the 28th of December 1654, he left the privy council, and henceforward is found with the Presbyterians and Republicans in opposition to Cromwell.
When the republicans triumphed Martos retired into exile, and soon afterwards into private life.
As the recognized leader of the new party, his nomination by the Republicans for the presidency in 1856 and in 1860 was regarded as certain; but in each instance he was put aside for another.
The contention brought to a crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of the Church of England.
The extreme republicans, anticipating Rousseau, put forward the Agreement of the People.
According to contemporary republicans he was a mere selfish adventurer, sacrificing the national cause "to the idol of his own ambition."
As a military commander he was not a conspicuous success, his debut being signalized by the defeat of the republicans at Saumur.
Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.
Besides the revolutionists and republicans who promoted con~ spiracy and insurrection whenever possible, and the moderates or Neo-Guelphs, as Giobertis followers were called, we must mention the Italian exiles who were learning the art of war in foreign countriesin Spain, in~ Greece, in aas Poland, in South Americaand those other exiles who, ~rn CX CS Paris or London, eked out a bare subsistence by teaching Italian or by their pen, and laid the foundations of that love of Italy which, especially in England, eventually brought the weight of diplomacy into the scales for Italian freedom.
At Milan, where there was a division of opinion between tha monarchists under Casati and the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration was formed and the question of the form of government postponed for the moment.
The mob, egged on by the republicans, attacked the palace where the king was lodged, and he escaped with difficulty, returning to Piedmont with the remnants of his army.
The Lombard republicans had been greatly weakened by the events of 1848, but Mazzini still believed that a bold act by a few revolutionists would make the people rise en masse and expel the Austrians.
The decline of Mazzinis influence was accompanied by the rise of a new movement in favor of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel, inspired by the Milanese marquis Giorgio New Pallavicini, who had spent 14 years in the Spielberg, Unio~lsi and by Manin, living in exile in Paris, both of them moveex-republicans who had become monarchists.
Many of the republicans and Mazzinians joined it, but Mazzini himself regarded it with no sympathy.
In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
It was the only battle which I have ever witnessed, the only battle-field I ever trod while the battle was raging; internecine war; the red republicans on the one hand, and the black imperialists on the other.