As the recognized leader of the new party, his nomination by the Republicans for the presidency in 1856 and in 1860 was regarded as certain; but in each instance he was put aside for another.
In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
The first steps toward this change had been taken, however, by the Republicans in 1870.
The court accused him of being at the bottom of every popular movement, and saw the "gold of Orleans" as the cause of the Reveillon riot and the taking of the Bastille, as the republicans later saw the "gold of Pitt" in every germ of opposition to themselves.
After the 28th of December 1654, he left the privy council, and henceforward is found with the Presbyterians and Republicans in opposition to Cromwell.
When the republicans triumphed Martos retired into exile, and soon afterwards into private life.
It was the only battle which I have ever witnessed, the only battle-field I ever trod while the battle was raging; internecine war; the red republicans on the one hand, and the black imperialists on the other.
The contention brought to a crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of the Church of England.
As a military commander he was not a conspicuous success, his debut being signalized by the defeat of the republicans at Saumur.
Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.
Besides the revolutionists and republicans who promoted con~ spiracy and insurrection whenever possible, and the moderates or Neo-Guelphs, as Giobertis followers were called, we must mention the Italian exiles who were learning the art of war in foreign countriesin Spain, in~ Greece, in aas Poland, in South Americaand those other exiles who, ~rn CX CS Paris or London, eked out a bare subsistence by teaching Italian or by their pen, and laid the foundations of that love of Italy which, especially in England, eventually brought the weight of diplomacy into the scales for Italian freedom.
At Milan, where there was a division of opinion between tha monarchists under Casati and the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration was formed and the question of the form of government postponed for the moment.
The mob, egged on by the republicans, attacked the palace where the king was lodged, and he escaped with difficulty, returning to Piedmont with the remnants of his army.
The Lombard republicans had been greatly weakened by the events of 1848, but Mazzini still believed that a bold act by a few revolutionists would make the people rise en masse and expel the Austrians.
The decline of Mazzinis influence was accompanied by the rise of a new movement in favor of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel, inspired by the Milanese marquis Giorgio New Pallavicini, who had spent 14 years in the Spielberg, Unio~lsi and by Manin, living in exile in Paris, both of them moveex-republicans who had become monarchists.
Many of the republicans and Mazzinians joined it, but Mazzini himself regarded it with no sympathy.
Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.
Presented to parliament in November 1898, the bill was read a second time in the following spring, but its third reading was violently obstructed by the Socialists, Radicals and Republicans of the Extreme Left.
The general election of June 1900 not only failed to reinforce the cabinet, but largely increased the strength of the extreme parties (Radicals, Republicans and Socialists), who in the new Chamber numbered nearly 100 out of a total of 508.
In October 1904, after the September strikes, the Chamber was dissolved, and at the general elections in November a ministerial majority was returned, while the deputies of the Extreme Left (Socialists, Republicans and Radicals) were reduced from 107 to 94, and a few mild clericals elected.
For this unfortunate combination Signor Sonnino himself was not altogether to blame; having lost many of his most faithful followers, who, weary of waiting for office, had gone over to the enemy, he had been forced to seek support among men who had professed hostility to the existing order of things and thus to secure at least the neutrality of the Extreme Left and make the public realize that the reddest of Socialists, Radicals and Republicans may be tamed and rendered harmless by the offer of cabinet appointments.
The Republicans in the state divided, and the majority of them went over to the Silver party.
In the presidential election of 1900 the Nevada Republicans pursued a non-committal policy with regard to the silver question, declaring in favour of " the largest use of silver as a money metal in all matters compatible with the best interests of our government."
To the Republicans (Democratic Republicans) they seemed intended to cause a usurpation of powers ungranted.
Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.
It is sometimes said that Federalism died because the Republicans took over its principles of nationality.
The Federalists were charged by the Republicans with being aristocrats and monarchists, and it is certain that their leaders 1 Even the Democratic party has generally been liberal; although less so in theory (hardly less so in practice) than its opponents.
The hard times which followed the financial panic of 1893 made it possible for them, in alliance with the Republicans, to carry the state in the election of 1894.
The republicans in nearly every case voted for him: and it is significant of the curious trend of French thought that the new imperial constitution of the 18th of May 1804 opened with the words: "The government of the Republic is confided to an emperor, who takes the title Emperor of the French."
Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups - the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans - and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
Vallandigham, the Democratic leader, was deported from the state by military order, and the Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864.
From 1904 to 1906 he was lieutenant-governor of Ohio, but in 1910, when nominated for governor by the Republicans, was defeated by a plurality of 10o,000.
He was at once elected to the national house of representatives, and took his seat in December 1 795 There, by sheer force of ability and industry, he wrested from all competitors the leadership of the Republicans, and became the most dangerous opponent whom the Federalists had ever encountered in congress.
The strong measures of the Federalists shocked the country; the leaders of the dominant party quarrelled fiercely among themselves; and the Republicans carried the elections of 1800.
In New York at this time the National Republicans, or "Adams men," were a very feeble organization, and shrewd political leaders at once determined to utilize the strong anti-Masonic feeling in creating a new and vigorous party to oppose the rising Jacksonian Democracy.
In Asia Minor, the "enslavement " and liberation of cities alternated with the circumstances of the hour, while the kings all through professed themselves the champions of Hellenic freedom, and were ready on occasion to display munificence toward the city temples or in public works, such as might reconcile republicans to a position of dependence.
But a quarrel broke out among the Republicans (1872), the result of which was the installation of two governors and legislatures, one supported by the Democrats and Liberal Republicans and the other by the radical Republicans, the former being certainly elected by the people.
The Republicans were divided into three factions, followers respectively of George Clinton (and later of his nephew, De Witt Clinton), Robert R.
Meantime the excesses of the French republicans had provoked reaction in England, and the Tory ministry adopted a policy of repression.
It suffered much in1865-1866from the savage struggle between Imperialists and Republicans, and in subsequent partisan warfare.
But he was reproached for accepting it by the extreme republicans and irreconcilables.
In spite of his youth and his reluctance to assume the responsibility, he was chosen as commander-in-chief after the defeat of the Vendeans by the republicans at Cholet.
The procession, revived in 1790, was again stopped by the French republicans five years later, but was revived under the Empire, and has flourished ever since.
After the war he denounced the Reconstruction policy of the Republicans as unconstitutional and tyrannical, but in 1870, seeing the uselessness of further opposition, he advised his party to accept the situation and adopt new issues.
In 1848 a Mexican congress met here to ratify the treaty of peace with the United States, and in 1867 Queretaro was the scene of Maximilian's last stand against the republicans (under Escobedo), which resulted in his capture and subsequent execution on the Cerro de las Campanas just N.
On the same day (13th of May) a mutiny at Karlsruhe forced the grand-duke to take to flight, and the next day he wis followed by the ministers, while a committee of the diet under Lorenz Brentano (1813-1891), who represented the more moderate Radicals as against the republicans, established itself in the capital to attempt to direct affairs pending the establishment of a provisional government.
By the majority of Republicans, at least, he was considered to have cleared himself completely, and in the Republican national convention he missed by only twenty-eight votes the nomination for president, being finally beaten by a combination of the supporters of all the other candidates.
In 1850 he was a member of the state constitutional convention, and in 1854 took an active part in organizing the "Anti-Nebraska men" (later called Republicans) of his state, and was by them sent to Congress.
After the formation of parties he became allied with the Democratic-Republicans rather than with the Federalists.
Being now at the head of the most numerous and best appointed army the republicans had yet assembled, he gained important advantages over the Spaniards under Morillo, and on the 25th of November 18 20 concluded at Truxillo an armistice of six months, probably in the hope that the Spaniards would come to terms, and that the further effusion of blood might be spared.
A severe battle was fought at Pichincha, where, by the prowess of his colleague Sucre, the Spaniards were routed, and Quito was entered by the republicans in June 1822.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
In 1889 the Republicans for the first time since the Civil War secured a majority in the legislature, and elected Anthony J.
Mr Addicks was an avowed candidate in 1895, but the opposition of the Regular Republicans, who accused him of corruption and who held the balance of power, prevented an election.
The expiration of Senator Gray's term in 1899 left a vacancy, but although the Republicans again had a clear majority the resolution of the Regulars prevented the Union Republicans, as the supporters of Addicks called themselves, from seating their patron.
Despite this apparent abandonment of their cause by the national organization, the Regulars continued their opposition, the state being wholly without representation in the Senate from the expiration of Senator Kenney's term in 1901 until 1903, when a compromise was effected whereby two Republicans, one of each faction, were chosen, one condition being that Addicks should not be the candidate of the Union Republicans.
In 1876 Garfield for the eighth time was chosen to represent his district; and afterwards as one of the two representatives of the Republicans in the House, he was a member of the Electoral Commission which decided the dispute regarding the presidential election of 1876.
The extreme republicans, anticipating Rousseau, put forward the Agreement of the People.
According to contemporary republicans he was a mere selfish adventurer, sacrificing the national cause "to the idol of his own ambition."
The Republicans, however, secured the electoral votes of Nevada in 1872 and in 1876, and in 1878 were again in full control, only to suffer defeat in 1880.
The curious imbroglio deceived royalists and republicans alike.
After the outbreak of the Civil War many of the Democrats of the Middle West, who were opposed to the war policy of the Republicans, organized the Knights of the Golden Circle, pledging themselves to exert their influence to bring about peace.