The former being identical with the army, the church and the supporters of despotism, while the latter represent the desire for republicanism and local self-government.
The court party became the Loyalist party, standing for law as against rebellion, monarchy and the union of the empire as against republicanism; the popular party became the patriot party, determined to stand on its rights at any cost.
He took an active part in the revolution of July 1830, and continuing to maintain the doctrine of republicanism during the reign of Louis Philippe, was condemned to repeated terms of imprisonment.
From 1824 to 1840 there is a complicated and not uninteresting movement of local politics and a preparation for the future, - the missions fall, republicanism grows, the sentiment of local patriotism becomes a political force, there is a succession of sectional controversies and personal struggles among provincial chiefs, an increase of foreign commerce, of foreign immigration and of foreign influence.
At length, in the 12th century, the inevitable conflict came between the republicanism of the Lombard cities and the German feudalism which still claimed their allegiance in the name of the Empire.
He had exchanged his moderate republicanism for radical views before he became war minister in the cabinet of Leon Bourgeois (1895-1896).
Some hopes of employment which he had after the revolution of February were frustrated by the reputation of speculative republicanism which he had acquired.
There he became a convert from republicanism to monarchism, being convinced that only under the auspices of King Victor Emmanuel could Italy be freed, and together with Giorgio Pallavicini and Giuseppe La Farina he founded the Societd Nazionale Italiana with the object of propagating the idea of unity under the Piedmontese monarchy.
The success of his sketch for the picture of the "Oath of the Tennis Court," and his pronounced republicanism, secured David's election to the Convention in September 1792, by the Section du Museum, and he quickly distinguished himself by the defence of two French artists in Rome who had fallen into the merciless hands of the Inquisition.
In these circumstances Republicanism rapidly gained ground.
In 1831 he was removed from active duty in consequence of his declared republicanism, but in 1832 he was recalled to the service and sent to Algeria.
But the mass of the people, and especially the rural population, sick of revolution, and weary even of the moderate republicanism of Cavaignac, were anxious for a stable government.
His hereditary republicanism recommended him to the government of national defence, by which he was entrusted in 1870 with the task of organizing resistance in the departments of the Eure, Calvados and Seine Inferieure, and made prefect of the last named in January 1871.
And Pope Clement VII., although certain outward forms of republicanism were preserved, and Alessandro de' Medici was made duke of Florence, the dignity to be hereditary in the family.
With liberty of conscience during the Revolution, from 1868 to 1877, the Church lost ground, and anti-clerical ideas prevailed for a while in the centres of republicanism in Catalonia and Andalusia; but a reaction set in with the Restoration.
Republicanism, however, gained ground, especially among the aristocracy.
Finally there was a real growth of republicanism, and some rulers - notably Victoria - were wholly out of sympathy with anything but personal, military rule.
But, though he was an ardent politician (having from his childhood embraced republicanism and a peculiar variety of romantic free-thought), he was first of all a man of letters and an inquirer into the history of the past.
In 1793 Sir John Scott was promoted to the office of attorney-general, in which it fell to him to conduct the memorable prosecutions for high treason against British sympathizers with French republicanism, - amongst others, against the celebrated Horne Tooke.
Marat despised the ruling party because they had suffered nothing for the republic, because they talked too much of their feelings and their antique virtue, because they had for their own virtues plunged the country into war; while the Girondins hated Marat as representative of that rough red republicanism which would not yield itself to a Roman republic, with themselves for tribunes, orators and generals.
A certain republicanism was professed by these adventurers.
On first coming to live at Montaigne he edited the works of his deceased friend Etienne de la Boetie, who had been the comrade of his youth, who died early, and who, with poems of real promise, had composed a declamatory and school-boyish theme on republicanism, entitled the Contr' un, which is one of the most over-estimated books in literature.