Ivan Gundulic and the brilliant group of poets that gathered round him at Ragusa in the early 17th century, reflected in their writings the little Slav Republic's intimate connexion with its kinsmen of Serbia and Bosnia.
In 1880-81 there was a consolidation and conversion of the republic's foreign indebtedness through a new loan of £2,750,000 at 3%, and in 1896 a new loan of 50,000,000 bolivares (£1,980,198) for railway guarantees and other domestic obligations.
Placed Florence under an interdict, ordered the expulsion of all Florentines from foreign countries, and engaged a ferocious company of Bretons to invade the republic's territory.
By 1378 peace was made, partly through the mediation of St Catherine of Siena, and the interdict was removed in consideration of the republic's paying a fine of 200,000 florins to the pope.
A Spanish army under Raymundo de Cardona and accompanied by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici and his brother Giuliano entered the republic's territory and demanded ioo,000 florins, the dismissal of Soderini, and the readmission of the Medici.
After some defeats, Venice was victorious and dictated peace; Carrara had to pay a huge indemnity and ask the republic's pardon (1373).