A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
We may miss the finer insight into human nature and the delicate touch in drawing character which Terence presents to us in his reproductions of Menander, but there is wonderful life and vigour and considerable variety in the Plautine embodiments of these different types.
In 1912, in collaboration with his wife, he published as a sumptuous folio, with reproductions of the illustrations of the first edition (1556), an English translation of Agricola's De Re Metallica.
Berthelot gives reproductions of the British Museum MSS.
Marcel's Reproductions de cartes et de globes relatives a la decouverte de l'Amerique du XVI' au X VIII siecle (Paris, 1893) and E.
The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
At the present time excellent reproductions of Rowland's speculum gratings are on the market (Thorp, Ives, Wallace), prepared, after a suggestion of Sir David Brewster, by coating the original with a varnish, e.g.
In consequence of the breaking away of the lower part of "Cleopatra's Needles" when removed to Alexandria and re-erected, the Roman engineers supported the angles on bronze crabs, one of which with three reproductions now supports the angles of the obelisk on the Thames Embankment.
It is often difficult to obtain quite accurate or even adequate reproductions of scenes and subjects, and, when this is done, it is obviously necessary to refrain from treating the work of the old artists and sculptors as equivalent to photographic representations.
Martha, L' Art etrusque, gives reproductions of the most important monuments.
Holder, Lex Salica (1879 seq.), reproductions of all the MSS.
RavaissonMollien's reproductions of the MSS.
The subjects also now include a new series of landscapes and views drawn as seen by the designers, and not reproductions of the work of other men; and also sketches of scenes and characters of every-day life and of the folk-lore in which Japan is so rich.
In their adaptation of modern processes of illustration the Japanese are entirely abreast of Western nations, the chrornolithographs and other reproductions in the Kokka, a periodical record of Japanese works of art (begun in 1889), in the superb albums of the Shimbi S/join, and in the publications of Ogawa being of quite a high order of merit.
Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina " (Mexico, 1892).
The volume is interspersed, far more extensively and richly than any other treatise on the war, with reproductions of contemporary plans, maps, documents, portraits and prints.
Had the copies made of ancient writings been mechanical reproductions of the originals, such as the photographic facsimiles of modern times, there would have been little here for textual criticism to do.
Klinkerfuss published in 1881 photo-lithographic reproductions of Mayer's local charts and general map of the moon; and his star-catalogue was re-edited by F.
His other publications were: Sun Pictures of Rocky Mountain Scenery (1870); The Yellowstone National Park, illustrated by chromolithographic reproductions of water-colour sketches by Thomas Moran (1876); The Great West: its Attractions and Resources (1880).
After this the notices that we have of the Essenes from antiquity are mere reproductions, except in the case of Epiphanius (died A.D.
Gruyer, La Jeunesse du roi Louis-Philippe, d'apres les pourtraits et des tableaux (Paris, 1909), edition de luxe, with beautiful reproductions of portraits, miniatures, &c.; Marquis de Flers, Louis-Philippe, vie anecdotique, 1773-1850 (Paris, 1891); E.
Very little is known about the members of this school, and there has been much discussion as to whether the Pythagorean literature which was widely published at the time in Alexandria was the original work of 1st-century writers or merely reproductions of and commentaries on the older Pythagorean writings.
35 corresponds almost word for 1 Reproductions of such Ptolemaic and Lysimachan coins are to be found in J.
In general see two excellent works by Franz Heinemann, TellIconographie, Lucerne, 1902 (reproductions, with text, of the chief representations of Tell in art from 1507 onwards), and Tell-Bibliographie (including that of Schiller's play), published in 1908 at Bern.
Metal-work more or less based upon every kind of past style is produced in vast quantities, and in some cases so skilful are the workers that modern forgeries and reproductions are almost beyond the power of experts to detect.
It is perhaps the very rapidity of the movement that is likely to retard its progress, and to fail to carry with it the wealthy clients and the decorators they employ, or perhaps even to increase the disposition to cling to the reproductions of the styles of the i i th and i 8th centuries.
On the continent of Europe, France was the first to recognize the merits of its bygone designers and craftsmen, and even antecedent to the Exhibition of 1851, when art in Great Britain was dormant, it was possible to obtain in Paris faithful reproductions of the finest ormolu work of the 18th century.
The Villa Suburbana has given us a good number of marble busts, and the so-called statue of Aristides, but above all that splendid collection of bronze statues and busts mostly reproductions of famous Greek works now to be found in the Naples Museum.
Many of the sculptors of antiquity, including Pheidias, Polyclitus, Cresilas and Phradmon, executed statues of Amazons; and there are many existing reproductions of these.
Rowland's Tables of Wave-Lengths, many theoretical papers, and some reproductions of important papers issued elsewhere.
5, 6, 7, 8 (plate) are reproductions of the Greenwich photographs of the sun from the 30th of January to the 8th of February 1905.
Alison Phillips, George Canning (London, 1903), with reproductions of contemporary portraits and caricatures; H.
The Galleria Principe di Napoli is in a smaller arcade opposite to the National Museum, mainly occupied by shops where reproductions from the museum are sold.
Helen Tongue, preface by Henry Balfour (Oxford, 1909), reproductions in colours; D.
Math., 1858, and Ernst Abbe') showed that the properties of these reproductions, i.e.
At first, the words, phrases and sentences which she used in expressing her thoughts were all reproductions of what we had used in conversation with her, and which her memory had unconsciously retained.
Helen has had the best and purest models in language constantly presented to her, and her conversation and her writing are unconscious reproductions of what she has read.