A very small sphere is said then to possess a charge of one electrostatic unit of quantity, when it repels another similar and similarly electrified body with a force of one dyne, the centres being at a distance of one centimetre, provided that the spheres are in vacuo or immersed in some insulator, the dielectric constant of which is' taken as unity.
The explanation is as follows: the charge (-}- Q) of positive electricity on the ball creates by induction an equal charge (- Q) on the inside of the canister when placed in it, and repels to the exterior surface of the canister an equal charge (+ Q).
Having a charge Q repels a unit charge placed at a distance x from its centre with a force Q/x 2 dynes, and therefore the work W in ergs expended in bringing the unit up to that point from an infinite distance is given by the integral W = Q x 2 dx = Hence the potential at the surface of the sphere, and therefore the potential of the sphere, is Q/R, where R is the radius of the sphere in centimetres.
Baron Cuvier in his Eloge historique of Fourcroy repels the charge, but he can scarcely be acquitted of time-serving indifference, if indeed active, though secret, participation be not proved against him.
His eloquence was of the vehement order; but it wins hearers and readers by the strength of its passion, the energy of its truth, the pregnancy and elegance of its expression, just as much as it repels them by its heat without light, its sophistical argumentaiions, and its elaborate hair-splittings.
Likewise the negative charge on B induces a positive charge on the side of B' nearest to it and repels negative electricity to the far side.
He also discovered that a body charged with positive or negative electricity repels a body free to move when the latter is charged with electricity of like sign, but attracts it if it is charged with electricity of opposite sign, i.e.
Positive repels positive and negative repels negative, but positive attracts negative.
This he repels, and his answer may be summed up as follows.