" The day," says Ernest Renan, " in which the belief in an after-life shall vanish from the earth will witness a terrific moral and spiritual decadence.
1 They are particularly important in that they counteracted the popular and interestingly written books of Max Muller: for instance, Muller, like Renan and Wilhelm von Humboldt, regarded language as an innate faculty and Whitney considered it the product of experience and outward circumstance.
Renan even called them "the most human of all books," and they are described by J.
Renan, Marc. Antoninus et la fin du monde antique (Paris, 1882; Eng.
(9th ed.); on David's character see especially his criticism of Renan, Eng.
The supposition of such influence is favoured by some critics (Tyler, Plumptre, Palm, Siegfried, Cheyne in his Jewish Religious Life after the Exile, and others), rejected by some (Zeller, Renan, Kleinert and others).
The reign of Herod, a period of despotism and terror, and of strife between Jewish religious parties, is preferred by some scholars (Gratz, Cheyne and others) as best answering to the social situation depicted in the book, while still others (as Renan) decide for the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (10478 B.
Renan, L'Ecclesiaste (1882); Bickell, Der Prediger (1884) and Kohel.- Untersuchungen (1886; Engl.
Against the genuineness have appeared Ewald, Renan, Hausrath, Hilgenfeld, Ritschl, Pfleiderer, Weizsacker, Holtzmann, von Soden, Schmiedel, von Dobschutz and many others.
But already, on the occasion of the death of Ernest Renan, October 1892, the attempts made to clear up the main principles and results of biblical science, first by Mgr d'Hulst, rector of the Institut Catholique, in his article "La Question biblique" (Le Correspondant, Jan.
To the Prophecy of Restoration we may fitly apply the words, too gracious and too subtly chosen to be translated, of Renan, "ce second Isaie, dont Fame lumineuse semble comme impregnee, six cent ans d'avance, de toutes les rosees, de tous les parfums de l'avenir" (L'Antechrist, p. 464); though, indeed, the common verdict of sympathetic readers sums up the sentence in a single phrase - "the Evangelical Prophet."
Renan, Les rabbins francais, pp. 647 foil.; Perles, Salomo ben Abraham ben Adereth, pp. 15-54; Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v.
Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris, he determined to push on farther into the desert.
And these were strengthened by French influences, notably those of Renan and the Strassburg theologians.
Cunningham, The Churches of Asia (London, 1880); Renan, "Les Crises du Catholicisme Naissant" in Rev. d.
In 1857 the new scholarship was put to a famous test, in which the challenge thrown down by Sir George Cornewall Lewis and Ernest Renan was met by Rawlinson, Hincks, Oppert and Fox Talbot in a conclusive manner.
His views have been accepted by (amongst many others) Renan, 1 Hilgenfeld, 2 Gebhardt,3 Lipsius, 4 Harnack, 5 Zahn, 6 Lightfoot, ?
Renan, Memoire sur la dynastie des Lysanias d'Abilene " in Memoires de l'institut imperial de France (xxvi., 1870); also P. W.
As to the Gospel's date, critics have returned from 160-170 (Baur), i 50 (Zeller), 130 (Keim), to 110-115 (Renan) and 80-110 (Harnack): since Irenaeus says its author lived into the times of Trajan (90-117), a date somewhere about 105 would satisfy tradition.
There is a statue of Ernest Renan, a native of the town.
At first, and indeed down to the middle of the 17th century, Jewish traditions and methods in the study of Hebrew dominated Christian scholars; but in the 17th and 18th centuries the study of other Semitic languages opened up that comparative linguistic study which was systematized and brought nearer to perfection in the 19th century (which also witnessed the opening up of the new study of Assyrian) by scholars such as Gesenius, Ewald, Olshausen, Renan, Noldeke, 'Stade and Driver.
Space forbids any attempt to sketch here the special growth of criticism in other countries, such as France, where the brilliant genius of Renan was in part devoted to the Old Testament, or within the Roman Catholic Church, which possesses in Pere Lagrange, for example, a deservedly influential critical scholar, and in the Revue Biblique an organ which devotes much attention to the critical study of the Old Testament.
"The Semitic nomads," remarks Renan in his History of Israel (tome 1, p. 50), "were the religious race par excellence, because in fact they were the least superstitious of the families of mankind, the least duped by the dream of a beyond, by the phantasmagory of a double or a shadow surviving in the nether regions..
Renan here refers to the burial rite of an ancient Scythian king (as described by Herodotus, iv.
Renan (1864); Les Sophistes et la critique (in controversy with E.
Renan, in Melanges d'histoire et des voyages, 169-195.
Of Lavisse's Histoire de France); Ernest Renan, Etudes sur la politique religieuse du regne de Philippe le Bel (1899) A.
Not a vestige remains of the great sanctuary of Melqarth at Tyre; a few traces of the temple of Adonis near Byblus were discovered by Renan, and a peculiar mausoleum, Burj alBezzaq, is still to be seen near Amrit; recent excavations at Bostan esh-Shekh near Sidon have unearthed parts of the enclosure or foundations of the temple of Eshmun (NSI.
Following may be added: Movers, Die Phonizier (1842-1856), to be used with caution; Renan, Mission de Phenicie (1864); Schroder, Die phonizische Sprache (1869); Stade in Morgenldndische Forschungen (1875); W.
Literature (1897), 9411 7; and Renan, S.
Lagarde, who is followed by Renan, connects this form with the LXX.
He also published a small work, The Christ of the Gospels and the Christ of History, in which the views of Renan on the gospel history were dealt with; a monograph on Pascal for Blackwood's Foreign Classics series; and a little work, Beginning Life, addressed to young men, written at an earlier period.
Renan, 1866; 7th ed.
Renan, Averroes et l'Averroisme (2nd ed., Paris, 1861); S.
Renan, however, says that he merely tried to justify Averroism against the charge of heterodoxy.
1-5), instead of giving his usual word of commendation, he plunges into a personal and historical vindication s of his apostolic independence, which, developed negatively and positively, forms the first of the three main 1 It is not quite clear whether traces of the Judaistic agitation were already found by Paul on this visit (so especially Holsten, Lipsius, Sieffert, Pfleiderer, Weiss and Weizsacker) or whether they are to be dated subsequent to his departure (so Philippi, Renan and Hofmann, among others).
Those by Derenbourg, Ewald, Stanley, Stade, Renan, Schiirer, Kent, Wellhausen, Guthe), see also Madden, Coins of the Jews (1881), H.
20 (so Eichhorn, Ewald, Schulz, Renan, Weiss, Lipsius, von Soden, &c.), while others do not begin it until ver.
Weiss (in Theologische Studien, 1897, pp. 182 f.), as well as those who, like Renan (S.
The researches of Renan have refuted the once popular idea that a great part of the original island has disappeared by natural convulsions, though he believes that the remains of a submerged wall at the south end indicate that about 15 additional acres were once reclaimed and have been again lost.
The present harbour is certainly the Sidonian port, though it is not so large as it once was; the other ancient harbour, the Egyptian port, has disappeared, and is supposed by Renan to have lain on the south side of the island, and to be now absorbed in the isthmus.
See also Renan, Mission de Phenicie (1864); Pietschmann, Gesch.
Renan, no prejudiced judge, pronounces him "the most Christian man of his time," and attributes to this his success as a reformer.
Lewes censures Renan for asserting of Ghazali's theory of causation - " Hume n'a rien dit plus."
Renan, De Philosophia Peripatetica apud Syros (1852), and Averroes et l'Averroisme (Paris, 3rd ed., 1867); Am.
ERNEST RENAN (1823-1892), French philosopher and Orientalist, was born on the 27th of February 1823 at Treguier.
All his life Renan was divided between his father's and his mother's political beliefs.
Her paternal ancestors came from Bordeaux, and Renan used to say that in his own nature the Gascon and the Breton were constantly at odds.
In the summer of 1838 Renan carried off all the prizes at the college of Treguier.
Dupanloup sent for Renan at once.
The superficial, brilliant, pseudo-scientific Catholicism of the capital did not satisfy Renan, who had accepted the austere faith of his Breton masters.
In 1840 Renan left St Nicholas to study philosophy at the seminary of Issy.
Renan began to perceive the essential contradiction between the metaphysics which he studied and the faith that he professed, but an appetite for truths that can be verified restrained his scepticism.
Secretly, Renan felt himself cut off from the communion of saints, and yet with his whole heart he desired to live the life of a Catholic priest Hence a struggle between vocation and conviction; owing to Henriette, conviction gained the day.
In October 1845 Renan left the seminary of St Sulpice for Stavistas, a lay college of the Oratorians.
Renan, brought up by priests in a world ruled by authority and curious only of feeling and opinion, was to accept the scientific ideal with an extraordinary expansion of all his faculties.
The certitudes of physical and natural science were revealed to Renan in 1846 by the chemist Marcellin Berthelot, then a boy of eighteen, his pupil at M.
Renan was occupied as usher only in the evenings.