In general, Aquinas maintained in different senses the real existence of universals ante rem, in re and post rem.
And accordingly it gave rise to the three great doctrines which divided the medieval schools: Realism of the Platonic type, embodied in the formula universalia ante rein; Realism of the Aristotelian type, universalia in re; and Nominalism, including Conceptualism, expressed by the phrase universalia post rem, and also claiming to be based upon the Peripatetic doctrine.
But the Platonically conceived proof of the being of God contained in the Monologion shows that Anselm's doctrine of the universals as substances in things (universalia in re) was closely connected in his mind with the thought of the universalia ante rem, the exemplars of perfect goodness and truth and justice, by participation in which all earthly things are judged to possess these qualities.
Abelard says, " Sic autem correxit sententiam, ut deinceps rem eamdem non essentialiter sed individualiter diceret."
At the same time he has nothing to say against the Platonic theory of universalia ante rem (see Idealism).
Thus he defended the universalia ante rem as exemplars existent in the divine intelligence, and censured Aristotle's doctrine of the eternity of the world.
The great age of Scholasticism presents, indeed, a substantial unanimity upon this vexed point, maintaining at once, in different senses, the existence of the universals ante rem, re and post rem.
But, in the Augustinian sense of ideas immanent in the divine mind, the universal ante rem may well be admitted as possessing real existence.
Finally, by abstraction from the individual things of sense, the mind is able to contemplate the universal apart from its accompaniments (animal sine homine, asino, et aliis speciebus); these subjective existences are the universalia post rem of the Nominalists and Conceptualists.
And in a similar spirit he explains the universalia ante rem as being, not substantial existences in God, but simply God's knowledge of things - a knowledge which is not of universals but of singulars, since these alone exist realiter.
Henri de Tourville, in his Histoire de la formation particulariste (1903), basing his argument on the Ynglinga Saga, interpreted in the light of " Social Science," reveals Odin, " the traveller," as a great " caravan-leader " and warrior, who, driven f rem Asgard - a trading city on the borders of the steppes east of the Don - by " the blows that Pompey aimed at Mithridates," brought to the north the arts and industries of the East.
The brilliant and enterprising Christian Thomasius brought out periodically, in dialogue form, his Monatsgesprdche (1688-1690), written by himself in the vernacular, to defend his novel theories against the alarmed pedantry of Germany, and, together with Strahl, Buddeus and others, Observationes selectae ad rem litterariam spectantes (1700), written in Latin.
"She carrieth no sway in state matters," however, it was said of her in 1605, "and, praeter rem uxoriam, hath no great reach in other affairs."
Writing to Abel Pouppin (in or about 1547) he complains that Calvin would not return his manuscript, and adds, " mihi ob earn rem moriendum esse certo scio."
2 Rivinus (Augustus Quirinus) paterno nomine Bachmann, Introductio generalis in Rem Herbariam (Lipsiae, 1690).
54 rem: K60 7.1,01): De mundo: On the universe.
Rem: aio-No-€ws Kai aia977r&,: De sensu et sensili: On sense and objects of sense.
Aquinas thought that before the creation the one eternal essence of any kind was an abstract form, an idea in the intellect of God, like the form of a house in the mind of a builder, ante rem; that after the creation of any kind it is in re, as Aristotle supposed; and that, as we men think of it, it is post rem, as Aristotle also supposed.
Of this view the part which was not Aristotle's, the state of " universalia ante rem," was due to the Neoplatonists, who interpreted the " separate forms " of Plato to be ideas in intellect, and handed down their interpretation through St Augustine to the medieval Realists like Aquinas, who thus combined Neoplatonism with Aristotelianism.
And Esarhaddon, built the temple, and Kikia who, according to Ashur-rem-nisheshu, built the city wa11.3 The considerable number of such names already found in First Dynasty records seems to show that people of this race were to be found at home as far south as Babylonia.