20, which is the most modern pattern of relay used by the British Post Office, known as the " Post Office Standard Relay."
The coils of the electromagnets are differentially wound with silk-covered wire, 4 mils (= 004 inch) in diameter, to a total resistance of 400 ohms. This differential winding enables the instrument to be used for " duplex " working, but the connexions of the wires to the terminal screws are such that the relay can be used for ordinary single working.
The standard relay will work single current with a current of 3 milliamperes, though in practice about 10 would be used.
Normally a switch attached to the key cuts the battery off, and connects the line direct through the receiving relay; this switch is turned to " send " when transmission commences, and is moved back to " receive " when it ceases: this movement is done quite mechanically by the telegraphist, and as it is practically never forgotten, automatic devices (which have often been suggested) to effect the turning are wholly unnecessary.
Cut off, sets up an induced current of high tension, which causes a spark to jump across the contact points of the relay, and by oxidizing them makes it necessary for them to be frequently cleaned.
Incoming currents pass from line through one coil of the relay, the key, and either the battery or battery resistance, according as whether the key is raised or depressed.
The result is that the armature of the relay is attracted, and currents are sent through the sounder from the local battery, producing the signals from the distant station.
The special form of curb sender mentioned, termed the " Interpolator," has been devised so as to secure the correct re-transmission of any given number of consecutive elements of a letter which are of the same sign, for when signals are received at the end of a long cable the relay arm will not return to its zero position between consecutive elements of the same sign, but will remain on the respective contact surface during the whole time occupied by such consecutive elements.
In series with the tube is placed a single voltaic cell and a telegraphic relay, and Marconi added certain coils placed across the spark contacts of the relay to prevent the local sparks affecting the coherer.
The relay itself served to actuate a Morse printing telegraph by means of a local battery.
When the relay is operated it connects a bell between one of the wires of the circuit and earth, while the bell itself is arranged to respond to current pulsations in one direction only.
Wallis's Elenchus geometriae Hobbianae, published in 1655 about three months after the De corpore, contained also an elaborate criticism of Hobbes's whole attempt to relay the foundations of mathematical science in its place within the general body of reasoned knowledge - a criticism which, if it failed to allow for the merit of the conception, exposed only too effectually the utter inadequacy of the result.
The seeming want of reaction of so much of the cerebellar structure under artificial stimulation, and the complex relay system revealed in the histology of the cerebellum, suggest that the impressions are elaborate.
In this the tongue of the relay is kept over to the spacing side by means of a current flowing in one direction, but on the depression of the signalling key the current is reversed, moving the relay tongue over to the marking side.
The relay tongue, being perfectly free to move, can be actuated by a comparatively weak current.
B, indicating whether a station is calling, in case the relay sticks or is out of adjustment.
Now if the values of the rheostat and condenser are adjusted so as to make the rise and fall of the outgoing current through both windings of the relay exactly equal, then no effect is produced on the armature of the relay, as the two currents neutralize each other's magnetizing effect.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
A current then flows and in passing round the circuit operates the line relay, with the result that the calling-lamp is lighted.
In such cases it is usual to employ a local battery to produce the signals, and to close the local battery circuit by means of a relay working.
Circuit-closing apparatus called a relay, which is practi cally an electromagnetic key which has its lever attached to the armature of the magnet and which can be worked by a very weak current.
In the form of relay indicated in the figure the armature is held against the stop a by a spring S.
When the key is in the middle position, that is, not making connexion with either the front or back contacts, the received currents pass through both coils of the relay and the rheostat; no interference is, however, felt from this extra resistance because, although the current is halved, it has double the effect on the relay, because it passes through two coils instead of one.
By means of this " light-relay " the intensity of the light acting at any moment upon the sensitized paper is made proportional to the illumination of the selenium in the transmitter.
The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.
Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
The instrument consists of two cams, the form of which regulates the components of the curbed signal, one cam being for the dot element and the other for the dash element, which by their sequence give the letter signals; these cams, by means of clutches controlled by the relay, are mechanically rotated by clockwork, the speed of rotation being approximately adjusted to the rate of transmission of a single element, so that the requisite number of consecutive elements is transmitted corresponding to the duration of contact of the relay arm with the side controlling that particular element.
The shunts usually employed with the drum relay (referred to above) have each a resistance of about 30 ohms and an inductance of 20, 30 and 40 henrys respectively.
A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
At the receiving station Marconi connected a single voltaic cell B 1 and a sensitive telegraphic relay R in series with his tube of metallic filings C, and interposed certain little coils called choking coils.
The relay was employed to actuate through a local battery B2 an ordinary Morse printing telegraphic instrument M.
In 1835 he combined the short circuit of his monster magnet (of 1834) with the small "intensity" magnet of an experimental telegraph wire, thereby establishing the fact that very powerful mechanical effects could be produced at a great distance by the agency of a very feeble magnet used as a circuit maker and breaker, or as a "trigger" - the precursor of later forms of relay and receiving magnets.
The movement of S is obtained by means of a relay engine, in which there are two rams of different diameters; a constant pressure is always acting on the smaller of these when the motor is at work, while the governor (or handpower if desired) admits or exhausts pressurewater from the face of the other, and the movements to and fro thus given to the two rams alter the position of the stud S, and thus change the stroke of the plungers of the main engine.
In.; the governor is carried within the driving pulley shown at the right-hand end, while the working revolving cylinders are carried inside the boxed-in flywheel at the left-hand end, the relay cylinder and its attachments being fixed to the bed-plate in front of the flywheel.
From Honolulu, a Pacific cable relay station and a post of the U.S. navy marines; and the county of Kauai, including Kauai and Niihau islands.
One of the greatest advances made in the development of the art of telephony was the introduction of the " common battery relay system."
The subscriber's meter is joined in multiple with the cut-off relay, and whenever a peg is connected to the circuit a current flows through the meter.
In one arrangement, now in extensive use, each telephone set is fitted with a relay of high inductance which is bridged across the circuit in series with a condenser.
He caused the relay in series with the sensitive tube to set in action not only a telegraphic instrument but also the electromagnetic tapper, which was arranged so as to administer light blows on the under side of the sensitive tube when the latter passed into the conductive condition.
In addition he added certain spark-generating coils across the contacts of the relay and tapper.