A great number of birds' bones have been found in caves, and among them some bearing marks of human workmanship. In France we have a large and extinct crane, Grus primigenia, but more interesting are the numerous relics of two species, the concomitants even now of the reindeer, which were abundant in that country at the period when this beast flourished there,and have followed it in its northward retreat.
Later writers add nothing to our knowledge, and are chiefly interested in the tarandus, an animal which dwelt in the woods of the Budini and seems to have been the reindeer (Aristotle ap. Aelian, Hist.
Still, the reindeer frequents it for its lichens, and on the drier slopes of the moraine deposits there occur four species of lemming, hunted by the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).
The reindeer, rapidly disappearing, is now met with only in the governments of Olonets and Vologda; Cervus pygargus is found everywhere, and reaches Novgorod.
Agriculture does not exist; the reindeer constitutes the principal wealth of the nomad Samoyedes and Lapps.
(6) Stalagmite with a few bones and antlers of reindeer, the thickness varying from one to fifteen inches.
As proved by the discovery of fossil remains, musk-oxen ranged during the Pleistocene period over northern Siberia and the plains of Germany and France, their bones occurring in river-deposits along with those of the reindeer, mammoth, and woolly rhinoceros.
The land mammals of Greenland are decidedly more American than European; the musk-ox, the banded lemming (Cuniculus torquatus), the white polar wolf, of which there seems to have been a new invasion recently round the northern part of the country to the east coast, the Eskimo and the dog - probably also the reindeer - have all come from America, while the other land mammals, the polar bear, the polar fox, the Arctic hare, the stoat (Mustela erminea), are perfectly circumpolar forms. The species of seals and whales are, if anything, more American than European, and so to some extent are the fishes.
On land reindeer were formerly hunted, to their practical extinction in the south, but in the districts of Godthaab, Sukkertoppen and Holstensborg there are still many reindeer.
Their heaps of reindeer horns and skulls - memorials of religious ceremonies - are exactly similar to those dating from the similar period of civilization in N.
One classification makes three divisions for the epoch, characterized respectively by the existence of the cavebear, the mammoth and reindeer; another, two, marked by the prevalence of the mammoth and reindeer respectively.
The reindeer, arctic fox (Canis lagopus), hare, wolf, lemming (Myodes obensis), collar lemming (Cuniculus torquatus) and two species of voles (Arvicolae) are the most common on land.
Schistocolor), the beaver, variable hare, wild boar, roebuck, stag, reindeer, elk and Phoca annelata of Lake Baikal - all these are common alike to Europe and to Siberia; while the bear, musk-deer (Moschus moschi- f erus), ermine, sable, pouched marmot or souslik (Spermophilus eversmani), Arvicola obscures and Lagomys hyperboraeus, distributed over Siberia, may be considered as belonging to the arctic fauna.
The, migration of thousands and thousands of roebuck from Manchuria across the Amur to the left bank of the river, or the migration of reindeer related by Baron F.
Cod-liver oil and salted fish are exported with some reindeer-skins, fox-skins and eiderdown; and coal and salt for curing are imported.
In the spring the great herds of tame reindeer are driven out to swim Strommen and graze in the summer pastures of Seiland; towards winter they are called home again.
On the summits of the Adirondacks are a few alpine species, such as reindeer moss and other lichens; on the shores of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester county are a number of maritime species; and on Long Island are several species especially characteristic of the pine barrens of New Jersey.
Thick, evidently relics from the Ice Age, covered by an upper layer of Post-Tertiary deposits containing numbers of perfectly wellpreserved mammoth remains, rhinoceros, Ovibos, and bones of the horse, reindeer, American stag, antelope, saiga and even the tiger.
Reindeer, followed by wolves, come also every year to the islands; the polar fox and polar bear, both feeding on the lemmings, are numerous.
Beyond this to the north are the " barren grounds " on which herds of caribou (reindeer) and musk ox pasture, migrating from north to south according to the season.
Their food is entirely vegetable, especially grass roots and stalks, shoots of dwarf birch, reindeer lichens and mosses, in search of which they form, in winter, long galleries through the turf or under the snow.
And birds of prey, as bears, wolves, foxes, dogs, wild cats, stoats, weasels, eagles, hawks and owls, and never spared by man; even domestic animals, as cattle, goats and reindeer, join in the destruction, stamping them to the ground with their feet, and even eating their bodies.
Sylvatica, the familiar " reindeer moss," are frequently eaten by man in times of scarcity, after being powdered and mixed with flour.
Their chief importance, however, is that in Lapland and other northern countries they supply the winter food of the reindeer and other animals, who scrape away the snow and eagerly feed upon them.
Thyme and the small white dune-rose (Rosa pimpinellifolia) also grow in the dunes, and wall-pepper (Sedum acre), field fever-wort, reindeer moss, common asparagus, sheep's fescue grass, the pretty Solomon-seal (Polygonatum officinale), and the broadleaved or marsh orchis (Orchis latifolia).
Reindeer and other varieties are of little interest for use other than trophy mats.
The reindeer now occurs only as a fossil; the sable, mentioned in the annals, has migrated eastwards; the wild horse, described by the annals as intermediate between the horse and the ass - probably similar to the Equus przewalskii of central Asia - is reputed to have been met with in the 13th century in the basin of the Warta, and two centuries later in the forests of Lithuania.
In the Hohlefels in the Swabian Achthal there is still no trace of earthenware, and we find the skull of a reindeer skilfully turned into a drinking-vessel.
With the exception of the reindeer, antlers are confined to the males.
The frontal appendages, when present, are confined (except in the case of the reindeer) to the males, and take the form of antlers, that is to say of type No.
Some of the more northern American deer, such as the wapiti, reindeer and elk (moose), are closely allied to Old World species; but there is also a group of exclusively American deer (Mazama) - the only one found in Central and South America - the members of which are unlike any living Old World deer; and these must be regarded as having reached the western hemisphere at an earlier date than the wapiti, reindeer and elk (see Deer, Elk, Fallow-Deer, Muntjac, Musk-Deer, Pre David'S Deer, Reindeer, Roebuck, Water-Deer, &c.).
REINDEER, in its strict sense the title of a European deer distinguished from all other members of the family Cervidae (see Deer), save those of the same genus, by the presence of antlers in both sexes; but, in the wider sense, including Asiatic and North American deer of the same general type, the latter of which are locally designated caribou.
Reindeer, or caribou, constitute the genus Rangifer, and are large clumsily built deer, inhabiting the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions of both hemispheres.
In spite of the existence of a number of more or less well-marked geographical forms, reindeer from all parts of the northern hemisphere present such a marked similarity that it seems preferable to regard them as all belonging to a single widespread species, of which most of the characters will be the same as those of the genus.
The Scandinavian reindeer is identified by Mr Grant with the barren-ground type.
Reindeer are domesticated by the Lapps and other nationalities of northern Europe and Asia, to whom these animals are all-important.
Domesticated reindeer have also been introduced into Alaska.
There may also be mentioned the wild reindeer, which is rare, though large domesticated herds are kept by the Lapps.
Other clauses dealt with the rights of the Laplanders to graze their reindeer alternatively in either country, - and with the question of transport of goods across the frontier by rail or other means of communication, so that the traffic should not be hampered by any import or export prohibitions or otherwise.
On the less mountainous islands the raising of sheep and reindeer is believed to be practicable.
The destruction of the wild caribou has threatened to expose the Indians to wholesale starvation, hence the effort which the United States government has made to stock the country with domestic reindeer from Siberia.
This effort made under the direction of the Bureau of Education has been eminently successful, and in the future the reindeer seems certain to contribute very greatly to the food, clothing, means of shelter and miscellaneous industries of the natives; and not less to the solution of the problems of communication and transportation throughout the interior.
Most distinctive is the ubiquitous carpeting of mosses, varying in colours from the pure white and cream of the reindeer moss to the deep green and brown of the peat moss, all conspicuously spangled in the brief summer with bright flowers of the higher orders, heavy blossoms on stunted stalks.
Reindeer moss grows both on the lowlands and the hills.
The governor has represented the president without possessing much power; the department of war has had ill-defined duties; the department of justice has, in theory, had charge of the general law; the department of the interior has administered the land law; the agents of the bureau of education have superintended the stocking of Alaska with reindeer; the United States Fish Commission has investigated the condition of marine life without having powers to protect it.
- United States Census, 1880, Ivan Petroff, Report on the Population, Industries and Resources of Alaska; United States Census, 1890 and 190o; on reindeer, Fifteenth Annual Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, by Sheldon Jackson (Washington, 1906); on agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, Experiment Stations, Bulletin Nos.
P. 286), that the human bones and worked flints had been deposited indiscriminately together with the remains of fossil elephant, rhinoceros, &c. Certain caves and rock-shelters in the province of Dordogne, in central France, were examined by a French and an English archaeologist, Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy, the remains discovered showing the former prevalence of the reindeer in this region, at that time inhabited by savages, whose bone and stone implements indicate a habit of life similar to that of the Eskimos.
Moreover, the co-existence of man with a fauna now extinct or confined to other districts was brought to yet clearer demonstration by the discovery in these caves of certain drawings and carvings of the animals done by the ancient inhabitants themselves, such as a group of reindeer on a piece of reindeer horn, and a sketch of a mammoth, showing the elephant's long hair, on a piece of a mammoth's tusk from La Madeleine (Lartet and Christy, Reliquiae Aquitanicae, ed.
Reindeer, Genus Rangifer.
Of the above, Reindeer and Elk are dealt with in separate articles (qq.v.).