The son of Zeuxidamus, reigned 476-427 B.C. (but see Leotychides).
Alfonso reigned alone and undisturbed in Lower Italy, combining for the first time since the year 1282 the crowns of Sicily and Naples.
Oswald, who is called patricius by Simeon of Durham, succeeded, but reigned only twenty-seven days, when he was expelled and eventually became a monk.
He left two sons, Louis and Henry, who reigned jointly until 1255, when a division of the lands was made, by which Louis II.
43-54 These kings reigned at some date anterior to the time of Saul.
TIGLATH-PILESER or III., son of Hadad-nirari II., appears to have reigned from about 950 to 930 B.C., but nothing is known about him.
The only exception to this rule is that no member of a royal family which has once reigned in France can be elected.
Xerxes II., who reigned for a very short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus).
Reigned a short time in A.D.
Alexander Ghent had fallen into the hands of John Casimir, Farnese and under his armed protection a fierce and intolerant governor= Calvinism reigned supreme in that important city.
The last scions of the Della Scala family still reigned in Verona, the last Carraresi in Padua; the Estensi were powerful in Ferrara, the Gonzaghi in Mantua.
Proceeded with plans which he had secretl) concerted after the treaty of Tilsit for transferring the infantf of Spain who, after the death of her consort, reigned at Florence on behalf of her young son, Charles Louis, from her kingdom of Etruria to the little principality of Entre Douro e Ceeral Minho which he proposed to carve out from the north Y~ of Portugal.
During the next few years order reigned in Italy, save for a few unimportant outbreaks in the Papal States; there was, however, perpetual discontent and agitation, especially The Papal in Romagna, where misgovernment was extreme.
Payva died at Cairo; but Covilhao, having heard that a Christian ruler reigned in the mountains of Ethiopia, penetrated into Abyssinia in 1490.
For the next two years confusion reigned supreme among the numerous factions in Ireland, O'Neill supporting the party led by Rinuccini, though continuing to profess loyalty to Ormonde as the king of England's representative.
His son Elah had reigned only two years (like Ishbaal and Nadab) when he was slain in the midst of a drunken carousal by his captain Zimri.
This pope reigned only ten months; his successor, John XXIII., raised Pierre d'Ailly to the rank of cardinal (June 6, 1411), and further, to indemnify him for the loss of the bishopric of Cambrai, conferred upon him the administration of that of Limoges (November 3, 1412), which was shortly after exchanged for the bishopric of Orange.
His daughter Berenice meanwhile reigned in Alexandria, a husband being found for her in the Pontic prince Archelaus.
If the chronological notice may be trusted, he was then thirty years of age, and he reigned there for seven and a half years (2.
SELEUCID DYNASTY, a line of kings who reigned in Nearer Asia from 312 to 65 B.C.
Laodice poisoned him and proclaimed her son Seleucus Callinicus (reigned 246-227) king, whilst her partisans at Antioch made away with Berenice and her son.
Soter (reigned 227-223), took up the task of reconquering Asia Minor from Attalus, but fell by a conspiracy in his own camp.
Philopator (reigned 187-176), consisted of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persis).
Eupator (reigned 164-162), in whose name the kingdom was administered by a camarilla.
Soter (reigned 162-150) was a strong and ambitious ruler.
An impostor, who claimed to be a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Balas (reigned 150-145), was installed as king by Ptolemy Philometor and given Ptolemy's daughter Cleopatra to wife, but Alexander proved to be dissolute and incapable, and when Demetrius, the son of Demetrius I., was brought back to Syria by Cretan condottieri, Ptolemy transferred his support and Cleopatra to the rightful heir.
Eusebes (reigned 95-83?), and the son of Eusebes, Antiochus Xiii.
Asiaticus (reigned 69-65).
Nothing is recorded of the facts of Aisin Gioro's reign except that he named the people over whom he reigned Manchu, or " Pure."
Here there reigned, during the forty years of the loss of Jerusalem, an almost unbroken peace.
A precarious peace had reigned in the Holy Land since 1272, when Bibars had granted a truce of ten years; but the fall of the great power of Charles of Anjou set free Kala`un the successor of Bibars' son (who reigned little more than two years), to complete the work of the great sultan.
He reigned 4 B.C.-A.D.
The objective was unexpected: it may have been chosen by St Louis, because he knew how seriously the power of the sultan was undermined by the Mamelukes, who were in the very next year to depose the Ayyubite dynasty, which had reigned since 1171, and to substitute one of their number as sultan.
Epiphanes Philadelpiius (reigned during 95), Philip I.
(reigned 95-83), Demetrius Iii.
Eukairos (reigned 95-88), and Antiochus Xii.
Dionysus Epiphanes (reigned 86?-85?), and lastly Philip II., the son of Philip I., who appears momentarily on the stage in the last days of confusion.
Cyzicenus (reigned 116-95), the son of Cyzicenus, Antiochus X.
The Mongol dynasty lasted less than a century, but the Ming, the native Chinese dynasty which succeeded it, reigned for nearly 300 years and despatched expeditions which reached India, Ceylon and East Africa.
A powerful native dynasty reigned in the 12th century, but in 1408 the island was attacked by Chinese, and from 1505 onwards it was distracted by the attacks and squabbles of Europeans.
But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.