Reid of New South Wales.
But he was chiefly attracted to the philosophical system represented by Reid and Stewart.
In 1826 he wrote a preface to a translation of the Moral Philosophy of Stewart, demonstrating the possibility of a scientific statement of the laws of consciousness; in 1828 he began a translation of the works of Reid, and in his preface estimated the influence of Scottish criticism upon philosophy, giving a biographical account of the movement from Hutcheson onwards.
The Scottish philosophy of Thomas Reid and his successors believed that David Hume's scepticism was no more than the genuine outcome of Locke's sensationalist appeal to experience when ripened or forced on by the immaterialism of Bishop Berkeley - God and the soul alone; not God, world and soul.
Besides testimony from outer sense, we have testimony and teachings from consciousness within - " first principles," as Reid generally calls them.
Reid - certainly a very unsystematic thinker - furnishes long and random lists of " first principles "; a later writer, J.
(2) Kant is often supposed to mean by a priori - see Hamilton's Reid, p. 762 - " innate " as opposed to " acquired from experience."
For British amber, Clement Reid in Trans.
As Clement Reid remarked: World-wide floras, such as seem to characterize some of the older periods, have ceased to be, and plants are distributed more markedly according to geographical provinces and in climatic zones.
And Reid has shown that during the glacial period the existing flora was replaced by an arctic one represented by such plants as Salix polaris, S.
Reid, 1882); Ad Fan.
Robert Reid, who ruled from 1526 to 1540, was its greatest abbot.
THOMAS REID (1710-1796), Scottish philosopher, was born at Strachan in Kincardineshire, on the 26th of April 1710.
Reid graduated at Aberdeen in 1726, and remained there as librarian to the university for ten years, a period which he devoted largely to mathematical reading.
In 1740 Reid married a cousin, the daughter of a London physician.
The foundation of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society (the "Wise Club"), which numbered among its members Campbell, Beattie, Gerard and Dr John Gregory, was mainly owing to the exertions of Reid, who was secretary for the first year (1758).
Many of the subjects of discussion were drawn from Hume's speculations; and during the last years of his stay in Aberdeen Reid propounded his new point of view in several papers read before the society.
In this year, Reid succeeded Adam Smith as professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow.
Hamilton's edition of Reid also contains an account of the university of Glasgow and a selection of Reid's letters, chiefly addressed to his Aberdeen friends the Skenes, to Lord Kames, and to Dr James Gregory.
Reid thus takes Hume's scepticism as, on its own showing, a reductio ad impossibile (see Hume, ad fin.) of accepted philosophical principles, and refuses, accordingly, to separate Hume from his intellectual progenitors.
From its origin in Descartes and onwards through Locke and Berkeley, modern philosophy carried with it, Reid contends, the germ of scepticism.
Embracing the whole philosophic movement under the name of "the Cartesian system," Reid detects its fundamental error in the unproved assumption shared by these thinkers "that all the objects of my knowledge are ideas in my own mind."
Reid, however, attacks the fundamental assumption.
Reid has a variety of names for the principles which, by their presence, lift us out of subjectivity into perception.
It has been understood as if Reid had merely appealed from the reasoned conclusions of philosophers to the unreasoned beliefs of common life.
For the rest, as regards the question of nomenclature, Reid everywhere unites common sense and reason, making the former "only another name for one branch or degree of reason."
Like Kant, too, Reid finds in space the source of a necessity which sense, as sense, cannot give (Hamilton's Reid, p. 323).
But Reid lacked the art to give due impressiveness to the important advance which his positions really contain.
Further, Reid is inclined to state his principles dogmatically rather than as logical deductions.
The transcendental deduction, or proof from the possibility of experience in general, which forms the vital centre of the Kantian scheme, is wanting in Reid; or, at all events, if the spirit of the proof is occasionally present, it is nowhere adequately developed.
One or two passages may certainly be quoted from Reid in School.
In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school.
Reid, commanding about 400 Missourians, attacked the town.
Of these the earliest were Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, who was mainly a follower of Thomas Reid, and Maine de Biran; but the name is still more appropriately given to the school of which the most distinguished members are Victor Cousin, Theodore Jouffroy, J.
Its public institutions include the MorrissonReeves (public) Library (1864), one of the largest (39,000 volumes in 1909) and oldest in the state, an art gallery, the Reid Memorial Hospital, a Home for Friendless Women, the Margaret Smith Home for Aged Women (1888), the Wernle Orphans' Home (1879; Evangelical Lutheran), and the Eastern Indiana Hospital for the Insane (1890).
Reid (Lord Loreburn) as lord chancellor, Mr Augustine Birrell as education minister (afterwards Irish secretary), Mr Lloyd-George as president of the Board of Trade, Mr Herbert Gladstone as home secretary, and Mr John Burns - a notable rise for a Labour leader - as president of the Local Government Board.
The church of St Olaf, from which the town took its name, was burned down by the English in 1502; and of the church erected on its site by Bishop Reid - the greatest building the Orkneys ever had - little more than the merest fragment survives.
Reid, who had formerly held military command.
It was favourably mentioned by Reid, Stewart and others, was frequently referred to by the Leibnitzians, and was translated into German by von Eschenbach in 1756.
Murdock's translation was revised and re-edited by James Seaton Reid in 1848, and by H.
It was counteracted to some extent by the study at the universities of the deductive logic of Aristotle and the inductive logic of Bacon, by parts of Mill's own logic, and by the natural realism of Reid, Stewart, and Hamilton, which met Hume's scepticism by asserting a direct perception of the external world.
He essayed to answer Locke by Kant, and Kant by Reid, Maine de Biran and Schelling.
From Reid he adopted the belief in an external world beyond sensation, from Biran the explanation of personality by will, from Schelling the identification of all reason in what he called " impersonal reason," which he supposed to be identical in God and man, to be subjective and objective, psychological and ontological.
Reid, Dugald Stewart and Sir William Hamilton, who, having been followed by H.
Its main tenet, that we have an immediate perception of the external world, is roughly expressed in the following words of Reid: " I do perceive matter objectively - that is, something which is extended and solid, which may be measured and weighed,.
Reid, however, did not always express himself so distinctly.
It is full of appeals to common sense, and of principles of common sense, which Reid also called intuitive first principles, and self-evident truths.
Hamilton went still further; he tried to combine the oil of Reid with the water of Kant; and converting.
The writers of the Scottish school, Reid in particular, did undoubtedly indicate some of the weaknesses in Hume's fundamental conception, and their attempts to show that the isolated feeling cannot be taken as the ultimate and primary unit of cognitive experience are efforts in the right direction.
Consciousness, he held - agreeing thus with the doctrine of "natural realism" which Hamilton developed from Reid - implies knowledge both of self and of the external world.