The compiler of this work, however, seems to have used a regnal list of the Bernician kings, which differed considerably from most of those found in our early authorities.
The careful statement of the ages of the animals in the later instances, with the regnal dates for their birth, enthronization and death have thrown much light on the chronology from the XXIInd dynasty onwards.
When the need began to be felt events were probably at first dated by the regnal years of kings; the reigns of successive kings were then arranged in order, and grouped, if necessary, in dynasties, and thus a fixed standard was gradually constructed.
In process of time, however, the custom of dating by the regnal year of the king became general.
If the regnal years of the kings of Israel from Jeroboam toJehoram be added together, they will be found to amount to 98, while if those of the kings of Judah for the same period (viz.
But when we proceed to add up similarly the regnal years in the two kingdoms from the division after Solomon's death to the fall of Samaria in the sixth year of Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
(e) The Civil Year (consuls, or regnal years of Tiberius) in early Christian tradition.
53], Eusebius probably under Claudius 11, that is, between September 51 and September 52 (for the meaning of the regnal years in the Chronicle of Eusebius see the present writer's article in Journal of Theological Studies, January 1900, pp. 188-192).
It is significant in this connexion that it was under Adrian (c. 774) that the papal chancery ceased to date by the regnal years of the Eastern emperor and substituted that of the pontificate.
From the Middle Kingdom onward to the Roman period, the dates upon Egyptian documents are given in regnal years.
The question arises from what point these regnal dates were calculated.
Successive .regnal years might begin (1) on the anniversary of the kings accession, or (2) on the calendrical beginning in each year (normally on the first day of the nominal First month of inundation, i.e.
Historical.As to absolute chronology, the assigning of a regnal year to a definite date B.C. is clear enough (except in occasional detail) from the conquest by Alexander onwards.
(1) Regnal dates as given on contemporary monuments may indicate the lengths of individual reigns, but not with accuracy, as they seldom reach to the end of a reign and do not allow for co-regen.cies.
Records of the time that has elapsed between two regnal dates in the reigns of different kings are very helpful; thus stelae from the Serapeum recording the ages of the Apis bulls with the dates of their birth and death have fixed the chronology of the XXVIth Dynasty.
In the Mercian regnal tables, however, he is assigned a reign of only twenty-one years, which, as his death took place in 654 or 655, would give 634 as the date of his accession, presumably on the overthrow of Edwin, or perhaps on that of Ceadwalla.
In the Vestergotland regnal lists he appears Haakon the before Steinkel and it is possible that the authority Red, 1066- of that king was not regularly acknowledged in 10:9 ?
The XXVIth Dynasty, which lasted 139 years, is particularly clear, and synchronisms fix, its regnal dates to the years B.C. within an error of one or two years at most.
The succession and number of the kings are also ascertained for other dynasties, together with many regnal dates, but very serious gaps exist in the records of the Egyptian monuments, the wo,rst being between the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties, between the XIth and the VIth, and at Dynasties 1.-Ill.