Relation of Refractive Index and Salinity.
In depth, and its waters are remarkable for their transparency and refractive powers.
By the methods of the differential calculus or geometrically, that the deviation increases with the refractive index, the angle of incidence remaining constant.
Chromatophores.The chromatophores or plastids are protoplasmic structures, denser than the cytoplasm, and easily distinguishable from it by their color or greater refractive power.
In young cells the chromatophores are small, colorless, highly refractive bodies, principally located around the nucleus.
In the epidermal cells of the leaf of species of Vanilla (\Vakker), and in the epidermis of different parts of the flower of Funkia, Ornithogalum, &c. (Zimniermann), highly refractive bodies of globular form, elaioplasts, which consist of a granular protein ground-substance containing drops of oil.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
Crystals of sulphur are transparent or translucent and highly refractive with strong birefringence; they have a resinous or slightly adamantine lustre, and present the characteristic sulphur-yellow colour.
He constructed a map of as many as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets.
In this line of investigation the prime importance belongs to the discovery (1) of the connexion between the refractive index and the polarizing angle, (2) of biaxial crystals, and (3) of the production of double refraction by irregular heating.
Arago, with whom he had already carried out investigations on the refractive properties of different gases, in the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Spain, and in subsequent years he was engaged in various other geodetic determinations.
When perfectly pure, carbon bisulphide is a colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling, highly refractive liquid, of specific gravity 1 2661 (18°/4°) (J.
It is well known that singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite values can be assigned to these groupings.
The general question of the relation of the refractive index to constitution has been especially studied by J.
It is there shown that every substance, transparent to light, has a definite refractive index, which is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuo to its velocity in the medium to which the refractive index refers.
The refractive index of any substance varies with (1) the wavelength of the light; (2) with temperature; and (3) with the state of aggregation.
The question of the dependence of refractive index on temperature was investigated in 1858 by J.
According to the electromagnetic theory of light K = N2, where N is the refractive index for rays of infinite wave-length.
In the case of substances possessing anomalous dispersion, the direct measurement of the refractive index for Hertzian waves of very long wave-length may be employed.
Briihl, have investigated the relations existing between the refractive power and composition.
Compounds having the same composition, have equal molecular refractions, and that equal differences in composition are associated with equal differences in refractive power.
8 shows the variation of refractive index of mixed crystals of potash alum and thallium alum with variation in composition.
If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
In the above argument the whole space between the object and the lens is supposed to be occupied by matter of one refractive index, and X represents the wave-length in this medium of the kind of light employed.
Calling the refractive index µ, we have as the critical value of e=2Xo/ µ sin a, (1).
The limit can be depressed only by a diminution in Xo, such as photography makes possible, or by an increase in /2, the refractive index of the medium in which the object is situated.
Taking the refractive index of water for the red rays as 0;, and for the violet rays as 1 r, we can calculate the following values for the minimum deviations corresponding to certain assigned values of n.
Moreover, his association with glass manufacture led him to study the refractive indices of different kinds of glass; he further undertook abstruse researches on electrostatic capacity, the phenomena of the residual charge, and other problems arising out of Clerk Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory.
On the other hand, while in the older crown and flint glasses the relation between refraction and dispersion had been practically fixed, dispersion and refraction increasing regularly with the density of the glass, in some of the new glasses introduced by Abbe and Schott this relation is altered and a relatively low refractive index is accompanied by a relatively high dispersion, while in others a high refractive index is associated with low dispersive power.
The further they depart from the ratio of refractive index to dispersive power found in the older glasses, the greater the difficulty found in obtaining them of either sufficient purity or stability to be of practical use.
The refractive indices of all glasses at present available lie between 1.46 and 1 90, whereas transparent minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (calcium fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial production of large mineral crystals.
- The optical desideratum is uniformity of refractive index and dispersive power throughout the mass of the glass.
This is probably never completely attained, variations in the sixth significant figure of the refractive index being observed in different parts of single large blocks of the most perfect glass.
As a general rule, to which, however, there are important exceptions, both these qualities are found to a greater degree, the lower the refractive index of the glass.
In this table n is the refractive index of the glass for sodium light (the D line of the solar spectrum), while the letters C, F and G' refer to lines in the hydrogen spectrum by which dispersion is now generally specified.
It is a clear, strongly refractive liquid, which has a pleasant odour; it boils at 144° and has a specific gravity of o 925 at o°.
Owing principally to differences in the length of the inch in various countries this method had great inconveniences, and now the unit is the refractive power of a lens whose focal length is one metre.
A lens of twice its strength has a refractive power of 2 D, and a focal length of half a metre, and so on.
In astigmatism, owing to differences in the refractive power of the various meridians of the eye, great defect of sight, frequently accompanied by severe headache, occurs.
There are very few substances, however, for which the optical refractive index has the same value as K for steady or slowly varying electric force, on account of the great variation of the value of K with frequency.
He found its focal length and hence the refractive index of the gas, C. Hajech (Ann.
54) also measured the refractive indices of various gases, using a prism containing the gas to be experimented on, and he found that the deviation by the prism agreed very closely with the theoretical values of sound in the gas and in air.
If c is the velocity of radiation in free space and, u the refractive index of a transparent body, V= c/ï¿½; thus it is the expression c2 fï¿½ 2 (u'dx-}-v'dy+w'dz) that is to be integrable explicitly, where now (u',v',w') is what is added to V owing to the velocity (u,v,w) of the medium.
With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.
The eyes are refractive globules set in a cup of red pigment traversed by a nerve fibre, and lie on the proximal side of the body, directly on the postero-dorsal surface of the brain, or at a little distance from it, on the neck, often within the circle on the corona, and usually well within the transparent body.
This quantity may readily be expressed in terms of the refractive indices for the three colours, for if A is the angle of the prism (supposed small) bc=(/1c - I)A, bD =(/ AD - OA, F - I)A, where µc, A n, µ F are the respective indices of refraction.
It is more useful than (1), as the refractive indices may be measured with a prism of any convenient angle.
If the powder of a transparent substance is immersed in a liquid of the same refractive index, the mixture becomes transparent and a measurement of the refractive index of the liquid gives the refractivity of the powder.
Christiansen found, in an investigation of this kind, that the refractivity of the liquid could only be got to match that of the powder for mono-chromatic light, and that, if white light were used, brilliant colour effects were obtained, which varied in a remarkable manner when small changes occurred in the refractive index of the liquid.
If the refractive index is, for instance, the same for both in the case of green light, and a source of white light is viewed through the mixture, the green component will be completely transmitted, while the other colours are more or less scattered by multiple reflections and refractions at the surfaces of the powdered substance.
Wood, when white light is transmitted through a paste made of powdered quartz and a mixture of carbon bisulphide with benzol having the same refractive index as the quartz for yellow light.
Wood has studied the iridescent colours seen when a precipitate of potassium silicofluoride is produced by adding silicofluoric acid to a solution of potassium chloride, and found that they are due to the same cause, the refractive index of the minute crystals precipitated being about the same as that of the solution, which latter can be varied by dilution.
N being the refractive index, A the wave-length, and A, B, C, &c., constants depending on the material, which diminish so rapidly that only the first three as here written need be taken into account.
The equations finally arrived at are DX2(A2_ 2) (x2_ A2m)2+g2A2 ' DgA3 (A A l m) 2 +g 2 A2 ' where is the wave-length in free ether of light whose refractive index is n, and A m the wave-length of light of the same period as the electron, is a coefficient of absorption, and D and g are constants.
The question as to whether the motion was due to an irregular distribution of the earth's atmosphere, thus involving abnormal variations in the refractive index, was also investigated; here, again, negative results were obtained.
It would therefore seem to be more appropriate to replace 1 - K- 1 by (2 - I)1112, where j s is the refractive index; but this expression involves the wave propagation for periods coinciding with free periods of the molecules.
Liquid prisms, however, suffer from the fact that any change of temperature involves a change in the refractive index of the prism.