Richard stayed in the Holy Land for another year, during which he won a battle at Arsuf and refortified Jaffa.
But Taganrog was not to be refortified, and Russia was to have no war-ships on the sea of Azov or the Black Sea.
To the north-west, a new city, Citta Geminiana (still represented by the village of Cittanova); but about the close of the 9th century Modena was restored and refortified by its bishop, Ludovicus.
Kronstadt, always strong, has been thoroughly refortified on modern principles.
It was occupied by the French in 1806, and refortified in 1813 by command of Napoleon; but in 1814 it was stormed by the Prussians under Tauentzien, who received the title of "von Wittenberg" as a reward.
Several times dismantled and refortified, Mons was finally converted into an open town in 1862.
It had been rebuilt by Harun al-Rashid in 796 A.D., refortified at great expense by Saif addaula, the Hamdanid (loth century) and Saiked, and ruined by the crusaders.
As Antiochia, was now refortified with dikes by Spasines, and christened Spasinu Charax (the wall of Spasines), or simply Charax (Plin.
Accordingly, in 413, in the reign of Theodosius II., Anthemius, .then praetorian prefect of the East and regent, enlarged and refortified the city by the erection of the wall which forms the innermost line of defence in the bulwarks whose picturesque ruins now stretch from the Sea of Marmora, on the south of Yedi Kula (the seven towers), northwards to the old Byzantine palace of the Porphyrogenitus (Tekfour Serai), above the quarter of Egri Kapu.
It was refortified by the celebrated Dutch general of engineers,Coehoorn, in the beginning of the 18th century.
On more than one occasion the newly-founded town was captured, sacked and destroyed by marauding bands of Welshmen, notably in 1152; but on each occasion the place was rebuilt and refortified by the earls-palatine of Pembroke, who greatly favoured this important settlement.