Nor was the theory of reflex action confined to the more "mechanical" functions.
In the same way, the reflex act of coughing is useful in removing either foreign bodies or excessive secretion from the air passages; but when the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is irritated and inflamed, it produces a feeling of tickling and a desire to cough sometimes very violently; yet the coughing simply tends to exhaust the patient, because there is really little or nothing to bring up. The same is the case in inflammation of the lung substance itself.
His restless life was the reflex of a mental history disturbed by prolonged agitation.
The brevity of the interval between the tap on the knee and the beginning of the resultant contraction of the muscle seems such as to exclude the possibility of reflex development.
Brandy) produces very valuable reflex effects, the heart beating more rapidly and forcibly, and the blood-pressure rising.
This reflex activity with "paralysis of will" is characteristic of the somnambulistic state.
The attitude may be described as due to prolonged, not very intense, discharge from reflex centres that regulate posture and are probably intimately connected with the cerebellum.
If we assume that there is a material process at the basis of ideation, we may take the analogy of the concomitance between a spinal reflex movement and a skin sensation.
There are no tides, and usually only a slight current towards the outlet, though powerful currents are temporarily produced by the rapid return of waters after a storm, and during the height of a westerly gale there is invariably a reflex current into the west end of the lake.
In 1848 Airy invented the reflex zenith tube to replace the zenith sector previously employed.
This" communion of the body and blood of Christ,"which in early writings is clearly distinguished from the thankoffering which preceded it, and which furnished the materials for it, gradually came to supersede the thank-offering in importance, and to exercise a reflex influence upon it.
The work of the last has some independent merit; but all are interesting as showing a fusion of Greek and Arabian medicine, the latter having begun to exercise even in the 11th century a reflex influence on the schools of Byzantium.
He holds that we pass without break from the phenomena of bodily life to the phenomena of mental life, that consciousness arises in the course of the living being's adaptation to its environment, and that there is a continuous evolution from reflex action through instinct and memory up to reason.
It excites the motor areas of the spinal cord and increases their reflex irritability.
It forms small crystals, showing a brilliant green reflex, and is soluble in water and alcohol with formation of a deep red solution.
The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
The physical "touch" that initiates the psychical "touch" initiates, through the very same nerve channels, a reflex movement responsive to the physical "touch," just as the psychical "touch" may be considered also a response to the same physical event.
Doubtless what we have is in the main a reflex of the heuristic character of Aristotle's own work as pioneer.
He calls it the Principle of Reflection, the Reflex Principle of Approbation, and assigns to it as its province the motives or propensions to action.
This induces a reflex secretion from the salivary and gastric glands, which is followed or accompanied by increased vascularity of the gastric mucous membrane, and by some degree of activity on the part of the muscular wall of the stomach.
To such fields may be added the yet more complicated problems of those reflex waves which flowed backwards from India into the border highlands.
This marks them off from such reflex acts as are unconsciously performed, and from the tropisms of plants and other lowly organisms. There remains, however, the difficulty of finding any satisfactory criterion of the presence of consciousness.
The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.
The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A.
The infinite God is the all; the world of independent objects is the result of reflection or self-consciousness, by which the infinite unity is broken up. God is thus over and above the distinction of subject and object; our knowledge is but a reflex or picture of the infinite essence.
Motor Automatism, on the other hand, is a non-reflex movement of a voluntary muscle, executed in the waking state but not controlled by the ordinary waking consciousness.
The alkaloid calabarine is, on the other hand, a stimulant of the motor and reflex functions of the cord, so that only the pure alkaloid physostigmine and not any preparation of Calabar bean itself should be used when it is desired to obtain this action.
Like Leibnitz, he proceeds from the fact that our perceptions are sometimes conscious, sometimes unconscious, to the inconsequent conclusion, that there are beings with nothing but unconscious perceptions; and by a similar non sequitur, because there is the idea of an end in will, he argues that there must be an unconscious idea of an end in instinctive, in reflex, in all action.
But in the decapitated animal we have good arguments for belief that we get the reflex movement alone as response; the psychical touch drops out.
Only a small fraction of Goethe's work was written in an impersonal and objective spirit, and sprang from what might be called a conscious artistic impulse; by far the larger - and the better - part is the immediate reflex of his feelings and experiences.
Nature, e.g., is not deduced as real because rational, but being real its rationality is presumed and, very imperfectly, exhibited in a way to make it possible to conceive it as in its essence the reflex of Reason.
Apparently there is an influence on the afferent nerves of the part which causes a reflex contraction - some authors say dilatation - of the vessels in the internal organs that are under the control of the same segment of the nervous system as that supplying the area of skin from which the exciting impulse comes.
1839) we find the reflex of Bolintineanu of the earlier period, in the beauty and simplicity of his lyrical poems - not yet published in complete form.
This earlier Marduk, however, was effaced by the reflex of the political development through which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to imbuing him with traits belonging to gods who at an earlier period were recognized as the heads of the pantheon.
This immediate pleasure that we take in goodness (and displeasure in its opposite) is due to a susceptibility which he calls the " reflex " or " moral " sense, and compares with our susceptibility to beauty and deformity in external things; it furnishes both an additional direct impulse to good conduct, and an additional gratification to be taken into account in the reckoning which proves the coincidence of virtue and happiness.
384), to which he says brutes, who partake as truly as men in the faculty called phantasia, never attain; the notion of God, whom he says we may imagine to be corporeal, but understand to be incorporeal; and lastly, the reflex action by which the mind makes its own phenomena and operations the objects of attention.
These rules for the individual are but the image or reflex of the political organization of the perfect or ideal state; and the man who strives to lead this life is called the solitary, not because he withdraws from society, but because, while in it, he guides himself by reference to a higher state, an ideal society.
But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechanically, and though by reflex action he may repel attack unconsciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, or like the boatman in the boat.
In all probability the actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some observers, such as A.
Wasmann considers that ants are neither miniature human beings nor mere reflex automata, and most students of their habits will probably accept this intermediate position as the most satisfactory.
But the influence of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord is very marked and characteristic. The reflex functions of the cord are entirely abolished, and it has been experimentally shown that this is due to a direct influence upon the cells in the anterior cornua.
If things different but similar have the same attributes, and are thereby the same, then in the first place the Kantian categories, though thoughts of mental origin and therefore confined to mind, are nevertheless applicable to things, because things, though different from, are the same as, thoughts, and have the categories of thoughts; in the second place, the Fichtian Ego of mankind is not the Absolute Reason of God, and yet is the same Absolute Reason; in the third place, the Schellingian Nature is the "other " of Spirit, and yet, being a mere reflex of the Idea of Nature, is identical with Spirit; and as this Spirit is everywhere the same in God and men, Nature is also identical with our Spirit, or rather with the Infinite Spirit, or Absolute Reason, which alone exists.
Schwartz, whose devotion and success told with such remarkable reflex influence on the Church at home.
2 At the most critical epochs such men have ever been raised up, and the reflex influence of their lives and self-denial has told upon the Church at home, while apart from their influence the entire history of important portions of the world's surface would have been altered.
Could we assume that there is in the adult man reflex machinery which is of higher order than the merely spinal, which employs much more complex motor mechanisms than they, and is connected with a much wider range of sense organs; and could we assume that this reflex machinery, although usually associated in its action with memorial and volitional processes, may in certain circumstances be sundered from these latter and unattendant on them - may in fact continue in work when the higher processes are at a standstill - then we might imagine a condition resembling that of the somnambulistic and cataleptic states of hypnotism.
It is believed that from the nature of the cell in which she is ovipositing, the queen derives a reflex impulse to lay the appropriate egg - fertilized in the queen or worker cell, unfertilized in the drone cell, as previously mentioned.
A blue bronze, Na2W5015, forming dark blue cubes with a red reflex, is obtained by electrolysing fused sodium paratungstate; a purple-red variety, Na2W309, and a reddish yellow form result when sodium carbonate and sodium tungstate are heated respectively with tungsten trioxide and tinfoil.
They pass more readily through mucous membranes, but almost every one of these is provided not only with a coating of mucus, which obstructs their passage, but with some reflex mechanism which tends to remove them.
Blisters applied at some distance from inflamed parts are also sometimes useful; and probably they produce this good effect by causing a reflex contraction of the arteries in the inflamed part, and thus acting like a cold application.
Later the affected muscles become exquisitely tender, and then atrophy, while the knee-jerk or other reflex is lost.
It forms quadratic prisms, having a violet reflex and insoluble in boiling hydrochloric acid.
General theory never has been, and in the nature of things never can be, the actual reflex of the life and movement of the economic world.
There appears also to be a specific action of lowering the reflex excitability of the spinal cord.
Since, however, the evidence of ordinary consciousness almost always goes to prove that the individual, especially in relation to future acts, regards himself as being free within certain limitations to make his own choice of alternatives, many determinists go so far as to admit that there may be in any action which is neither reflex nor determined by external causes solely an element of freedom.
Such is the reflex and mechanical movement independent of the mind.
In both respects the reflex action of the Novatianist and Donatist controversies upon Catholicism was disastrous to the earlier idea of church-fellowship. Formal and technical tests of membership, such as the reception of sacraments from a duly authorized clergy, came to replace Christ's own test of character.
But this historical aspect of the myth is of late origin: it is nothing but a reflex of the great Iranian empire founded by the Achaemenids and restored by the Sassanids.