The referendum has been sparingly used in matters of local concern.
In 1902 thirteen amendments were adopted, including provisions for the initiative, the referendum and the recall.
Under an amendment to the Constitution adopted in 1906 his veto power does not extend to measures referred to the people by the legislative assembly or by initiative and referendum petitions.
Exceptions to the referendum are made in the case of laws necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or the support of the state government or the various state institutions.
In June the referendum on union was taken in Natal, and resulted in a complete rout of the separatists.
But there has been considerable interference (ostensibly on humanitarian grounds) with the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food (Shehitah) and the method was prohibited by a referendum in 1893.
A referendum act was passed in April 1909, and in June following the electors by 11,121 votes to 3701 decided to join the Union.
In 1907 the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the application of initiative and referendum to statutory laws and constitutional amendments; two years later the legislature passed a substitute resolution, which omits the clause regarding amendments of the constitution, and which, if passed by the legislature of 2922 will be put to popular vote at the general election of 1912.
The inclusion in the charter of the principle of the " initiative and referendum " enables a percentage of the voters to compel the submission of measures to public approval.
Any bill proposed in the legislature or passed by it must be referred to popular vote before becoming law, if there is a referendum petition therefor signed by 10,000 voters; and a petition signed by 12,000 voters initiates new legislation.
On a referendum, 685,969 electors 1866.
Notes ad referendum are addressed by diplomatic agents to their own governments asking for fresh powers to deal with points not covered by their instructions, which they have had to "refer."
Since 1875, 1000 citizens can claim a popular vote (facultative Referendum) on all bills, or can exercise the right of initiative whether as to laws or the revision of the cantonal constitution.
The "obligatory Referendum" obtains in the case of all laws, while 1500 citizens have the right of "initiative" whether as to laws or the revision of the cantonal constitution.
By the latest enactments (one dating from 1905) 2500 citizens can claim a vote ("facultative referendum") as to any legislative project, or can exercise the "right of initiative" as to any such project or as to the revision of the cantonal constitution.
The charter contains initiative and referendum provisions, provides for the recall of any elective city official, and prohibits the granting of any franchise for a longer term than twenty years.
Meanwhile a conference of the maritime powers was held in London in1908-1909for the elaboration of a code of international maritime law in time of war, to be applied in the international Court of Prize, which had been proposed in a convention signed ad referendum at the Hague Conference of 1907.
The charter provides for a referendum vote on franchises, which may be ordered by the council or by petition of the people, the signatures of 20% of the registered voters being sufficient to force such election.
In January 1898 the bill was finally agreed to and submitted to a popular referendum of the inhabitants of each colony.
This provision for the initiative and the referendum was made effective by a legislative act of 1903.
The Democrats ruled from 1878 to 1880, and introduced the "Referendum" (1879) into the cantonal constitution, but, their policy of the separation of church and state having been rejected by the people at a vote, they gave way to the Radicals.
Several state InWailve, constitutions now contain provisions enabling a Referendum prescribed number (or proportion) of the voters in and Recall.
Upon this measure, however, the people ordered a referendum and it was rejected at the polls.
Its vote is regarded as a referendum, and its members are twice as numerous as those of the Narodna Skupshtina.
On a referendum in 1895 on the expediency of granting municipal suffrage to women only 59.08% of the women who were registered voted, and probably less than 10% of those entitled to be registered.
The town hall is not large enough for an assemblage of all the voters, but actually the attendance is usually limited to about Zoo, and since 1901 there has been in force a kind of referendum, under which any measure passed by a town-meeting attended by 700 or more voters may be referred, upon petition of loo legal voters, to a regular vote at the polls.
The "obligatory referendum" exists in the case of all laws, while 8000 citizens have the right of "initiative" in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution.
The obligatory Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of decrees relating to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while 12,000 citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution.
With the latter may be compared presentday movements like the initiative and referendum, and not a few discussions of national debts.
The treaty made with the former country in 1893 was not ratified, as it was thought to concede too much to Peru, and the subsequent ad referendum treaty was rejected on account of Peru claiming that only Peruvians, and not all residents, should have the right to vote in the plebiscite to be taken by the terms of the treaty of 1883 for the possession of Tacna and Arica.
In September 1908 a constitutional amendment was adopted providing for referendum and initiative by the people.
The opposition to union among an influential number of old Nataliansintensely zealous for local independence - was however so marked that it was decided that before Natal was committed to union a referendum on the subject should be taken.
A referendum of legislative enactments may be ordered in two ways: the legislature itself may refer any of its acts to the people for approval or rejection at the next regular election, in which case the act may not be vetoed by the governor and does not go into effect until approved at the polls; or 5% of the number of voters at the last election for a supreme court justice may by petition order any act, except such as are "necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health or safety," to be referred to the voters for their approval or rejection.
The initiative and the referendum are employed in municipal ordinances as well as in state laws; towns and cities make their own provisions as to "the manner of exercising the initiative and referendum powers as to their own municipal legislation"; but "not more than 10% of the legal voters may be required to order the referendum nor more than 15% to propose any measure by the initiative, in any city or town."
5, sec. i of the state constitution, authorized the initiative and referendum, but twofifths of the entire number of counties must each furnish for initiative petitions signatures amounting in number to 8% of the whole number of votes cast for governor at the election last preceding the filing of the petition; for referendum petitions two-fifths of the counties must each furnish as signers 5% of the legal voters; and any measure referred to the people shall be in full force unless the petition for the referendum be signed by 15% of the legal voters (whose number is that of the total votes cast for governor, &c., as above) of a majority of the whole number of counties, but that in such case the law to be referred shall be inoperative until it is passed at the popular election.
Chamberlain) was a prominent advocate of the initiative, the referendum and the direct election of United States senators; and that a wing of the Republican party worked for the choice of the Democratic candidate by the people in the hope that the (Republican) legislature would not ratify the popular choice and so would nullify the direct primary law.
An amendment which was adopted (177,615 for; 147,290 against) in November 1908, and came in effect on the 4th of December 1908, provides for initiative and referendum applying to statutory law and to constitutional amendments, but emergency measures, and appropriations for the state government, for state institutions, and for public schools are exempt from referendum.
In June 1906 five laws and five amendments to the constitution, proposed by initiative petitions, and one law on which the referendum was ordered by petition, were submitted to a popular vote.
He met, however, with considerable opposition, especially from the Labour party, who resented his advocacy of conscription (twice rejected on a referendum) and in 1917 refused to reelect him as their leader.
To the departments that were hostile to the dictatorship of Paris, and the tyranny of Danton or Robespierre, it promised the referendum, an executive of twenty-four citizens, universal suffrage, and the free exercise of religion.
The referendum may be ordered by the legislature or by a petition signed by at least 5% of the legal voters in each of two-thirds (at least) of the congressional districts of the state; such petition must be filed not more than 90 days after the final adjournment of the legislature; referred measures become law upon receiving a favourable majority of the popular vote.
At the election in June 1908 the number of initiative and referendum measures amounted to nineteen, and the ballot required forty-one separate marks and was over 22 ft.