The channel between the reef and the coast is in places 70 m.
- For Physical Geography: Barton, Australian Physiography (Brisbane, 1895); Wall, Physical Geography of Australia (Melbourne, 1883); Taylor, Geography of New South Wales (Sydney, 1898); Saville Kent, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia (London, 1893); A.
Gold-mining went through the usual stages of alluvial washing, deep sinking and quartz-reef working.
- This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e.
Deep. There are a few clear openings in the outer rampart which the reef presents to the ocean.
The Great Barrier Reef of Australia can be traced more or less continuously round the Gulf of Papua and along the south-east coast to the extremity of the Louisiades.
The port is formed by a stone reef running parallel with and a half-mile from the shore line, within which vessels of light draft find a safe anchorage, except from southerly gales.
Deep. In the Transvaal gold region (South Africa), a number of shafts have been sunk to strike the reef at about 4000 ft.
Two other United States warships, "Trenton" and "Vandalia," were beaten to pieces on the coral reef; and the German warships "Olga" and "Eber" were wrecked with great loss of life.
In many places the main reef lies at a great depth and some bore-holes are over 5500 ft.
This was a conservative estimate, and was made before the full extent of the reefs was known; in 1904 Lionel Phillips stated that the main reef series had been proved for 61 m., and he estimated the gold remaining to be mined to be worth £2,500,000,000.
The Devonian system is well exposed in the Reef ton mining field.
BELL or INCHCAPE Rock, a sandstone reef in the North Sea, II m.
It is not at all certain that the masses on which coral reefs are built consist entirely of the remains of the skeletons of reef-forming organisms and it is probable that chemically precipitated carbonate of lime predominates.
The Black Reef Series is composed of quartzites, sandstone, slates and conglomerate.
The main reef, continuously traced, measures about 62 m.
An almost unbroken barrier reef skirts the west shore at about 5 m.
The French headquarters are on the islet of Zaudzi, which lies within the reef in 12° 46' S., 45° 20' E.
They lie within a coral barrier reef, and in the south the islands are of coral, but in the north of volcanic rocks.
Pelsert struck on a reef called " Houtman's Abrolhos " on the 4th of June 1629.
In 1886 there was a serious volcanic eruption in the outlying island of Nivafoou, and at the same time Falcon Reef, normally awash at high water, discharged sufficient scoriae and pumice to form a new island 50 ft.
Another group of islands consists of elevated masses of submarine volcanic deposits, upon some of which coral-reef limestone forms a more or less complete covering; such are Tonumeia and the Nomuka group (Mango, Tonua, Nomuka-iki).
Conglomerate beds occur in belts forming in descending order the Elsburg series, Kimberley series, Bird Reef series, Livingstone Reef series, Main Reef series.
The richest in gold are to be found among the Main Reef series, which yields by far the greater part of the total output of gold from the Transvaal.
One is a red granite intruded subsequently to the Waterberg sandstones; another is a grey variety considered to be older than the Black Reef series and possibly older than the Witwatersrand series.
In 1883 the discovery of Moodie's Reef near the Kaap Valley led to a considerable influx of diggers and prospectors from the colonies and Europe, and by 1884 the Sheba Mine had been opened up, and Barberton, with a population of 5000 inhabitants, sprung into existence.
The town, named after Johannes Rissik, then surveyor-general of the Transvaal, was founded in September 1886, the first buildings being erected on the part of the reef where are now the Ferreira and Wemmer mines.
Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites.
The gold in this conglomerate reef is partly of detrital origin and partly of the genetic character of ordinary vein-gold.
- A reef-haunting hemipteron (Hermatobates haddonii) with excessively reduced abdomen.
The surveys and reports of Captain Moresby in 1874 brought home to Queensland (and Australia generally) the dangers possible to her commerce were the coasts opposite to Torres Strait and the entrance to the splendid waterway inside the Barrier Reef to fall into the possession of a foreign power.
These islands form a continuation of a dangerous granite reef extending along the south coast of Finland.
Evidence of recent elevation of the island is furnished by masses of coral reef and beach coral rock standing at heights of 40 ft.
KEY WEST (from the Spanish Cayo Hueso, " Bone Reef"), a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Monroe county, Florida, U.S.A., situated on a small coral island (41m.
It is not a coral reef, as is sometimes stated, but is a consolidated ancient beach, now as hard and firm as stone.'
According to tradition an abbot of Aberbrothock (Arbroath) had ordered a bell - whence the name of the rock - to be fastened to the reef in such a way that it should respond to the movements of the waves, and thus always ring out a warning to mariners.
In 1770 Captain Cook here beached his ship the "Endeavour," to repair the damage caused by her striking a reef in the neighbourhood of the estuary, which he could only clear by throwing his guns overboard.
See Geographical Journal, passim; and Atoll of Funafuti: Borings into a Coral Reef (Report of Coral Reef Committee of Royal Society, London, 1904).