61) devised a measuring machine which combines the rapidity of the glass-scale micrometer with the accuracy of the spiderline micrometer and simplifies the reductions of the observations at the same time.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
There are, however, considerable reductions for distances over 93 m., on a scale increasing in proportion to the distance.
This fact alone is sufficient proof that these conditions, or rather reductions, have been acquired independently of the various groups.
After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.
Who, first searching whether their new country were rich in metals, soon began adventurous raids into the interior, making excursions also against the remote Indian tribes with a view to obtaining slaves, and from the year 1629 onwards repeatedly attacked the Indian reductions of the Jesuits in Paraguay, although both provinces were then nominally subject to the crown of Spain.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
A third group of systems comprises those proposed by Hommel and Niebuhr, for their reductions in the date assigned to Dynasty I.
These considerable reductions in the dates of the earlier dynasties of Babylonia necessarily react upon our estimate of the age of Babylonian civilization The very high dates of 5000 or 6000 B.C., formerly assigned by many writers to the earliest remains of the Sumerians and tl e Babylonian Semites, 12 depended to a great extent on the statem nt of Nabonidus that 3200 years separated his own age from th: t of Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon of Agade; for to Sargon, on this statement alone, a date of 3800 B.C. has usually been assigned.
The total estimated reductions on account of loss in working due to faults and other natural causes in seams and of coal required to be left for barriers, support of surface buildings, &c.; and column III.
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
In that year Pitt concluded a commercial trea ty with France, providing for large reductions of duties in both countries.
In that year, and again in 1825, great reductions were made in the duties on raw materials, especially on wool, raw silk, flax and iron, while considerable reductions were also made in the duties on manufactured goods.
In 1842 great reductions of duty were made on a large number of articles; in 1846 still further reductions of duty were made; another series of changes came in 185 3; and finally, in 1860, the last remnant of protective duties disappeared.
In the first place, most of the reductions of duty on manufactured articles were of little practical significance.
All these countries made reductions of duty on French products, while France admitted other products at the rates of the British treaty tariff.
As a rule the minimum tariff has been applied, after negotiation, and thus is the tariff in practical effect; yet its rates are still high, and, most significant of all, agricultural products are granted no reductions whatever as compared with the maximum tariff, there being heavy and unrelaxed duties upon grain, animals, meats and the like.
In 1853 a treaty between the Zollverein and Austria brought about reciprocal reductions of duty between these two parties.
The second alternative was accepted, largely and low because Austria did not vigorously support the South tariff, German states, and in 1865 the Zollverein as a whole 186x' concluded a commercial treaty with France, bringing about important reductions of duty.
These treaties provided for reductions of duties in all directions, the most important concessions being on certain agricultural products.
But the reductions of duty made under it were never effectively carried out.
Accordingly in the first ensuing session of the Congress elected in 1892 the tariff act of 1894 was passed, known as the Wilson Tariff, bringing about considerable reductions of duty.
This circumstance, as well as the failure to make other desired reductions, caused the ardent tariff reformers to be greatly disappointed with the act of 1894 as finally passed, and led President Cleveland to permit it to become law without its endorsement by his signature.
Some provisions for reciprocity arrangements with other countries, opening the way for possible reductions of duty by treaty arrangements, were also incorporated in the act of 1897, though with limitations which made it improbable that any considerable changes would ensue from this policy.
In conformity with these reductions the breastbone of the moas is devoid of any coracoidal facets; there is no trace of a keel, and the number of sternal ribs is reduced to three or even two pairs.
The inhabitants of the "reductions," whom the Jesuits had trained in the use of European arms and discipline, naturally rose in defence of their homes, and attacked the troops and authorities.
At the conclusion of peace the debt had risen to 63 millions, near which point it remained until about 1852, from which time successive reductions brought it down to 28 millions in 1857.
To obviate them statesmen have been led to adopt the principle of the " most-favoured-nation-clause " - that is to say, a clause providing that if any reductions of tariff or other advantages are granted by either contracting state to any third state, the others.
In Europe this clause has been uniformly treated as applying to all reductions of tariff without distinction.
The United States interpretation, on the other hand, distinguishes between reductions of a general character and reductions made specifically in return for reductions by some other state.
The great improvement in trade during 1905 and 1906 checked this tendency, and probably the manufacturing extensions owed something to the capital set free by the reductions of stocks.
According to Paul Pelseneer the Polyplacophora are the most archaic, the Aplacophora being specialized in (1) the great reduction of the foot, (2) the disappearance of the shell (Cryptoplax among the Polyplacophora showing both reductions in progress), (3) the disappearance of the radula.
If there are two fusions one would expect two reductions, and Harper has suggested that the division of the nuclei into eight in the ascus, instead of into four spores as in most reduction processes, is associated with a double reduction process in the ascus.
Miss Fraser in Humaria rutilans finds two reductions: a normal synaptic reduction in the first nuclear division of the ascus, and a peculiar reduction division termed brachymeiosis in the third ascus division.
Two years later Austria-Hungary also arranged with Russia a treaty similar to that already made between Russia and Germany; the reductions in the tariff secured in these treaties were applicable also to Great Britain, with which there still was a most favoured nation treaty.
The loss of Norway necessitated considerable reductions of expenditure, but the economies actually practised fell far short of the requirements of y P q after 1815.
In Banff, Nairn, Elgin and several southern counties rent reductions varied from 25 to 30%.
Prior to the successive reductions of the salt duty in 1903, 1905 and 1907, next to land, salt contributed the largest share to the Indian revenue; and, where salt is locally manu factured, its supervision becomes an important part of salt Admini- administrative duty.
This he effected by reductions in permanent expenditure, amounting in the aggregate to 12 millions sterling, as well as by augmenting the revenue from land that had escaped assessment, and from the opium of Malwa.
But as by the admission of both logicians these reconstructions of Darapti are illogical, it follows that their respective reductions of categorical universals to existentials and hypotheticals are false, because they do not explain an actual inference.
To investigate the small oscillations about this state of steady motion we write Oa+~ in (24) and neglect terms of the second order in x~ We find, after some reductions, 5+(I+3cos2a)f~x=o; (26)
It is little wonder, then, that the several reductions of the collected results were internally discordant so as to leave outstanding a considerable " probable error," but showed themselves able to yield very different conclusions when the same set was discussed by different persons.
By the adoption of this method great reductions in the quantity of water used and wasted are in some cases effected, and the water tenant pays for the leakage or waste he permits to take place, as well as for the water he uses.
Hydropterideae.-Two very distinct orders of heterosporous Filicales, the Salviniaceae and the Marsiliaceae, are included in this group. The difficulty of determining their exact relationship to the other orders of Ferns is increased by the more or less completely aquatic habit of the plants and the modifications and reductions in structure associated with this.
Certain reductions in taxation having been made in 1889, the reform of the constitution became the question of the hour.
The creditors of the state had to suffer several suspensions of payments of their dues, and reductions both of capital and interest.
In 1899 the revenue derived from the country was E126,000, in 1909 it had risen to E1,040,000, despite slight reductions in taxation, a proof of the growing prosperity of the land.