Boron nitride BN is formed when boron is burned either in air or in nitrogen, but can be obtained more readily by heating to redness in a platinum crucible a mixture of one part of anhydrous borax with two parts of dry ammonium chloride.
Berthelot first accomplished the synthesis of benzene in 1870 by leading acetylene, HC: CH, through tubes heated to dull redness; at higher temperatures the action becomes reversible, the benzene yielding diphenyl, diphenylbenzene, and acetylene.
The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.
Uranous chloride, UC14, was first prepared by Peligot by heating an intimate mixture of the green oxide and charcoal to redness in a current of dry chlorine; it is obtained as sublimate of black-green metallic-looking octahedra.
Ammonium uranate heated to redness yields pure U308, which serves as a raw material for uranium compounds.
Distillable below redness: mercury.
The ultimate chlorination product of copper, CuC1 2, when heated to redness, decomposes into the lower chloride, CuCI, and chlorine.
The following, though volatile at higher temperatures, are not volatilized at dull redness: KC1, NaCI, LiC1, NiC1 2, CoC1 2, MnC1 2, ZnCl 2, MgCl 2, PbCl 2, AgCI, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, magnesium, lead, silver.
Oxide of zinc, like most heavy metallic oxides, is easily reduced to the metallic state by heating it to redness with charcoal; pure red zinc ore may be treated directly; and the same might be done with pure calamine of any kind, because the carbon dioxide of the zinc carbonate goes off below redness and the silica of zinc silicate only retards, but does not prevent, the reducing action of the charcoal.
After four days' heating the provisional front wall is removed piecemeal, and the retorts, after having been heated to redness, are inserted in corresponding sets.
A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.
Thorpe), by heating to dull redness an intimate dry mixture of the oxide and ignited lamp-black in dry chlorine.
It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.
Strontium sulphide, SrS, is formed when the carbonate is heated to redness in a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen.
The metal is then heated, not to redness, but sufficiently to develop a certain degree of softness, and the workman, taking a very thin sheet of gold (or silver), hammers portions of it into the salient points of the design.
When coal is heated to redness out of contact with the air, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are in great part expelled, a portion of the carbon being also volatilized in the form of hydro carbons and carbonic oxide,-the greater part, however, remaining behind, together with all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of coke, or, as it is also called, " fixed carbon."
Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.
When boiled with water it forms the ortho-acid, and when heated to redness the metaacid.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
When heated to redness the amide is decomposed into ammonia and potassium nitride, NK 3, which is an almost black solid.
The character of some of the conglomerate of the Newark series of the east, and the widespread redness of the beds, so far as it is original, also point to aridity.
It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.
Magnesium oxychloride when heated to redness in a current of air evolves a mixture of hydrochloric acid and chlorine and leaves a residue of magnesia, a reaction which is employed in the Weldon-Pechiney and Mond processes for the manufacture of chlorine.
The whole was thrown in several portions on to the hearth of a furnace previously heated to low redness and was stirred at intervals for three hours.
Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.
Of retaining its hardness and hence its power of cutting iron and other hard substances, even when it is heated to dull redness, say 600° C. (1112° F.) by the friction of the work which it is doing.
Thallous chloride, T1C1, is readily obtained from the solution of any thallous salt, by the addition of hydrochloric acid, as a white precipitate similar in appearance to silver chloride, like which it turns violet in the light and fuses below redness into a (yellow) liquid which freezes into a horn-like flexible mass.
The drained crystals are dried and heated to redness in a reverberatory furnace; when " finished," the mass is of an impure white or light yellow colour and is sold as ordinary " soda-ash."
On heating to redness in a stream of hydrogen it forms a bluish mass which is probably a lower oxide of composition GaO.
St Edme (Comptes rendus, 1886, 106, p. 1079) sheet nickel is passive to nitric acid, and the metal remains passive even when heated to redness in a current of hydrogen.
The critic from this side has little difficulty in showing that abstraction of the kind alleged still leave the residuum particular this redness, e.g.
If much carbonaceous matter be present (and this is generally so when iron sponge is used as the precipitant) the crude product is heated to redness in the air; this burns out the carbon, and, at the same time, oxidizes a little of the copper, which must be subsequently reduced.
It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.
Various morbid conditions of the body generally may give rise to different symptoms. Thus a gouty condition may manifest itself in one man as eczema of the skin, giving rise to redness and intense itching; in another as neuralgia, causing most severe pain; in a third as bronchitis, producing a distressing cough; in a fourth as dyspepsia, giving rise to flatulence and intestinal disturbance; and in a fifth as inflammation of the great toe, accompanied by redness, swelling and pain.
There is also pain in the eyelid, redness of the eye, and flow of tears.
Hittorf's phosphorus is another crystalline allotrope formed by heating phosphorus with lead in a sealed tube to redness, and removing the lead by boiling the product with nitric and hydrochloric acid.
Nitrogen Compounds.-Phosphorus pentachloride combines directly with ammonia, and the compound when heated to redness loses ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid and gives phospham, PN 2 H 4, a substance first described by Davy in 1811.
Methane cannot be burnt in this way even when there is much hydrogen present, and several other methods have been proposed, such as mixing with air and aspirating over copper oxide heated to redness, or mixing with oxygen and burning in a platinum tube heated to redness, the carbon dioxide formed being estimated by absorption in potash.
Any small body which was a good absorber of dark rays was rapidly heated to redness when placed at the focus.
It is not volatilized even when heated to redness in a current of hydrogen, and it burns readily to the pentoxide when heated in oxygen.
This substance dissolves slowly in water, forming arsenic acid; by heating to redness it decomposes into arsenic and oxygen.
A piece of iron or steel wire in the circuit of a galvanometer is heated in a flame to bright redness at any point.
On a mucous membrane or a delicate skin it exerts an irritant action, which occurs more quickly than on a thickened epidermis, such as the scalp, and according to the strength and period of application there may result redness, a blister, or an ulcer.
The countess in turn, without omitting her duties as hostess, threw significant glances from behind the pineapples at her husband whose face and bald head seemed by their redness to contrast more than usual with his gray hair.
Spots appeared on his nose, the redness of which was evidently due to intemperance, and his mouth twitched nervously.
But the tomato, a berry grown out of its natural proportion by the fiddling of man, at least knew redness was its ultimate goal.
The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.
Molybdenum dioxide, Mo02, is formed by heating sodium trimolybdate, Na2M03010, to redness in a current of hydrogen (L.
It may be obtained from argyrodite by heating the mineral in a current of hydrogen; or by heating the dioxide to redness with carbon.