This reciprocal silence is probably significant.
The government maintains reciprocal rates with most of the private railway lines.
V, Specific volume of fluid, reciprocal of density.
Reciprocal figures are easily drawn by following definite rules, and afford therefore a simple method of computing the stresses on members of a frame.
The law of reciprocal proportions, or, as it might well be named, the law of equivalence, cannot be adequately enunciated in a few words.
A'Ran studied her for a long moment before turning on the reciprocal viewer, curious yet wary as to what his nishani had to say in place of Ne'Rin.
Reciprocal action is explained away into a " preestablished harmony " between every monad and all others.
A transformation which is sometimes rapid, sometimes slow, but always continuous, is wrought by the reciprocal action of the innate variability of plants and of the variability of the external factors.
" In London," says he, " I was lost in the crowd; I ranked with the first families in Lausanne, and my style of prudent expense enabled me to maintain a fair balance of reciprocal civilities..
The Adjoint or Reciprocal Determinant arises from A = (a11a22a33 ...a nn) by substituting for each element A ik the corresponding minor Aik so as to form D = (A 11 A 22 A 33 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ A nn).
For if u, v, w be the polynomials of orders m, n, p respectively, the Jacobian is (u 1 v 2 w3), and by Euler's theorem of homogeneous functions xu i +yu 2 +zu 3 = mu xv1 +yv2 +zv3 = /IV xw 1+y w 2+ zw 3 = pw; denoting now the reciprocal determinant by (U 1 V2 W3) we obtain Jx =muUi+nvVi+pwWi; Jy=ï¿½.., Jz=..., and it appears that the vanishing of u, v, and w implies the vanishing of J.
To eliminate wind as far as possible reciprocal firing was adopted, the interval between the two firings being only a few seconds.
The following definition of reciprocal figures: - " Two plane figures are reciprocal when they consist of an equal number of lines so that corresponding lines in the two figures are parallel, and corresponding lines which converge to a point in one figure form a closed polygon in the other."
This polygon falls under the definition of a reciprocal figure given by Clerk Maxwell, if we consider the frame as a point in equilibrium under the external forces.
69 b is the polygon of external forces, and 69 c is half the reciprocal figure.
The law of reciprocal proportion, of which some examples have been already given, is part of a larger law of equivalence that underlies most of our chemical methods and calculations.
Encouraged from Berlin, Kalnky agreed to the reciprocal territorial guarantee, but declined reciprocity in support of special interests.
Compared with the export trade in live stock from Ireland to Great Britain the reciprocal trade from Great Britain to Ireland is small, and is largely restricted to animals for breeding purposes.
The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.
These were drawn up in the language of the country, a Romance dialect (1288 being the date of the most ancient written code), and are remarkable for the manner in which they define the rights of the sovereign, determining the reciprocal obligations of the viscount and his subjects or vassals.
Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
Before long the reciprocal need of fresh territory and frontier disputes, especially concerning Poggibonsi and Montepulciano, led to an outbreak of hostilities between Florence and Siena.
He now proposed to define absolute temperature as proportional to the reciprocal of Carnot's function, so as to agree as closely as possible with the scale of the gas thermometer.
Ruppin's formula as L=o oo1465 S - o o0000978 S 2 +0.0000000876 S 3 in reciprocal ohms.
During the Civil War Congregationalism broadened out into reciprocal relations with the national life and history.
Then the triangle YXE is the reciprocal FIG.
The complete reciprocal figure is shown in fig.
In 1853 a treaty between the Zollverein and Austria brought about reciprocal reductions of duty between these two parties.
., and the value of its reciprocal, log e io (by multiplication by which Briggian logarithms may be converted into Napierian logarithms) is 2.302585092994 0 45 68401 799 1 4
' It is to palaeogeography and zoogeography in their reciprocal relations that palaeontology has rendered the most unique services.
In a very curious manner, by viewing the circle y= (1 - x2): as a member of the series of curves y= (I -x 2 )', y = (I -x 2) 2, &c., he was led to the proposition that four times the reciprocal of the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, i.e.
By the terms of this treaty the " Alabama " claims and the San Juan boundary were referred to arbitration; the free navigation of the St Lawrence was granted to the United States in return for the free use of Lake Michigan and certain Alaskan rivers; and it was settled that a further commission should decide the excess of value of the Canadian fisheries thrown open to the United States over and above the reciprocal concessions made to Canada.
5-6) needs rearrangement through their not noticing that, according to Aristotle, reciprocal justice, being the fairness of a commercial bargain, is not part of absolute or political justice, but is part of analogical or economical justice.
It was not till 1876 that he published, in two volumes, his remarkable Histoire de la formation territoriale des etats de l'Europe centrale, in which he showed with a firm, but sometimes slightly heavy touch, the reciprocal influence exerted by geography and history.
The regular octahedron has for its faces equilateral triangles; it is the reciprocal of the cube.
Teleologism," to express its conclusion that the known Lotze world beyond phenomena is neither absolute thought nor unconscious will, nor the unconscious at all, but the activity of God; causing in us the system of phenomenal appearances, which we call Nature, or bodies moving in time and space; but being in itself the system of the universal reciprocal actions of God's infinite spirit, animated by the design of the supreme good.
He believed in reciprocal action; and the very essence of his metaphysics consists in sublimating the interaction of bodies into the interaction of immaterial elements, which produce effects on one another and on the soul as one of them.
Having thus rejected all bodily mechanism, he had to suppose that reciprocal action somehow takes place between immaterial elements.
With him the reciprocal action of mind and body is altogether denied; they resemble two clocks, so made by the artificer as to strike the same hour together.
" The whole course of nature becomes intelligible only by supposing the co-working of God, who alone carries forward the reciprocal action of the different parts of the world.
If Spain and Gaul borrowed from Rome, they also exercised a reciprocal influence on the Roman use; it is interesting to note in this connexion, that of the names of the liturgical vestments a very large proportion are not of Roman origin, and that the non-Roman names tended to supersede the Roman in Rome itself.'
Uniplanar motion alone is so far amenable to analysis; the velocity function 4 and stream function 1G are given as conjugate functions of the coordinates x, y by w=f(z), where z= x +yi, w=4-Plg, and then dw dod,y az = dx + i ax - -u+vi; so that, with u = q cos B, v = q sin B, the function - Q dw u_vi=g22(u-}-vi) = Q(cos 8+i sin 8), gives f' as a vector representing the reciprocal of the velocity in direction and magnitude, in terms of some standard velocity Q.
But when the wind is steady its effect may be eliminated by " reciprocal " observations, that is, by observations of the time of passage of sound in each direction over the measured distance..
The reciprocal method was adopted in 1738 by a commission of the French Academy (Memoires de l'academie des sciences, (1738).
Bow (Economics of Construction), and is convenient in applying the theory of reciprocal figures to the computation of stresses on frames.
This polygon of forces may, by a slight extension of the above definition, be called the reciprocal figure of the external forces, if the sides are arranged in the same order as that of the joints on which they act, so that if the joints and forces be numbered I, 2, 3, 4, &c., passing round the outside of the frame in one direction, and returning at last to joint 1, then in the polygon the side representing the force 2 will be next the side representing the force I, and will be followed by the side representing the force 3, and so forth.
67 a shows the reciprocal figure or polygon for the external forces on the assumption that the reactions are slightly inclined.
The method of sections already described is often more convenient than the method of reciprocal figures, and the method of influence lines is also often the readiest way of dealing with braced girders.
Again, in developing his discourses into larger treatises he might fall into dislocations; although it must be remembered that these are often inventions of critics who do not understand the argument, as when they make out that the treatment of reciprocal justice in the Ethics (v.
4) in order to prove that in a wrong the injurer gains as much as the injured loses, and immediately afterwards to the reciprocal justice of commerce (ib.
Balmer, who showed that the four hydrogen lines in the visible part of the spectrum may be represented by the equation n = A(i - 4/s2), where n is the reciprocal of the wave-length and therefore proportional to the wave frequency, and s successively takes the values 3, 4, 5, 6.
In order to exert force, or at all events that force of reciprocal pressure which we best understand, and on which, in impact, the third law of motion was founded, there are always at least two bodies, enduring, triply extended, mobile, each inert, mutually impenetrable or resistent, different yet similar; and in order to have produced any effect but equilibrium, some bodies must at some time have differed either in mass or in velocity, otherwise forces would only have neutralized one another.
C. Oersted (1777-1851) had shown that a magnetic needle is deflected by an electric current, he attempted, in the laboratory of the Royal Institution in the presence of Humphry Davy, to convert that deflection into a continuous rotation, and also to obtain the reciprocal effect of a current rotating round a magnet.
To 276 places of decimals, and deduced the value of log e lo and its reciprocal M, the modulus of the Briggian system of logarithms. The value of the modulus found by Adams is Mo = 0-43429 44 81 9 03251 82765 11289 18916 60508 22 943 97 00 5 80366 65661 14453 78316 58646 4920-8870 77 47292 2 4949 33 8 43 17483 18706 106 74 47 6630-3733 64167 92871 58963 90656 92210 64662 81226 58521 27086 56867 03295 9337 0 86965 88266 88331 16360 773849 0514 28443 48666 76864 65860 85135 56148 212 34 87653 43543 43573 25 which is true certainly to 272, and probably to 273, places (Proc. Roy.
67 d as the complete reciprocal figure of the frame and forces upon it, and we see that each line in the reciprocal figure measures the stress on the corresponding member in the frame, and that the polygon of forces acting at any point, as Ijky, in the frame is represented by a polygon of the same name in the reciprocal figure.
The reciprocal figure for any loaded frame is a complete formula for the stress on every member of a frame of that particular class with loads on given joints.