The chief sources of revenue are taxes on realty, personalty and corporations, a poll-tax, and licences.
Realty values rose ten-fold in 1849.
Louis took the equivalent of 25% of the assessed value of the city's realty and personalty.
The revenues of the several states, and of minor governmental areas within them, are mainly derived from a general property tax, laid directly upon realty and personalty.
From the 13th century, however, inclusive, the king's courts insisted on their exclusive jurisdiction in regard to all realty, temporal or " spiritual " (Pollock and Maitland, op. cit.
The assessed valuation of realty and personalty for 1920-I was $777,500,000.
The conquered peoples fell into an inferior caste, made to work for, and to pay for the subsistence of, their conquerors, as under the Arab domination; the principal taxes exacted from them were the kharaj, a tax of indeterminate amount upon realty, based on the value of lands owned by unbelievers - (in contradistinction to the tithe [ashar] which was a tax of fixed amount upon lands owned by believers) - and levied in payment of the privilege of gaining means of existence in a Mussulman country, and the jiziye, a compulsory payment, or poll-tax, to which believers were not subjected, in lieu of military service.
Laurent points out that direct taxes furnish 54% of the revenues of the empire, that agriculture is accordingly very heavily taxed, and that the tax on realty is both excessive and unfairly administered.
The tax on realty (verghi) is estimated to yield £T2,599,420.
The first class contains such revenues as the emlak verghi-si (duty on realty), `ashar (tithes), temettu (professional tax), &c. In all such cases the taxable values are fixed by a commission of experts, sometimes chosen by the tax-payers themselves, sometimes by the official authorities; in all cases both tax-payers and authorities are represented on the commissions, whose decisions may be appealed against, in last resort, to the council of state at Constantinople, whose decision is final.
Of the increase in the total value of farm property between 1850 and 1900 more than half was in the decade 1890-1900; this increase being due partly to the rising value of suburban realty, but also to a development of intensive farming that has been very marked since 1880.
The assessed valuation of realty in the state in 1908 was $2,799,062,707 and of personalty $1,775,073,438.
Various special 2 In 1869 the personalty valuation was 60% that of realty; but it steadily fell thereafter, amounting in 1893 to 32%.
The whole body of freemen composed the General Court until other towns than Plymouth had been organized, the first of which were Scituate in 1636 and Duxbury in 1637, and then the representative form of government was adopted and there was a gradual differentiation between Plymouth the town and Plymouth the 1882 the assessment of realty increased nearly twelve times as much as personalty.
In the intervening period the assessed valuation of realty in Boston increased more than 100%, while that of personalty slightly diminished (the corresponding figures for the entire United States from 1860 to 1890 being 172% and 12%), yet the most competent business and expert opinions regarded the true value of personalty as at least equal to and most likely twice as great as that of realty.
The assessed valuation of taxable property, in the city, in August 1906 was $201,585,127, of which $157,611,560 represented realty and $43,973,567 personality.
The census estimate of the true value of property constituting the national wealth was limited in an enumeration of 1850 to taxable realty and privately held personalty; in 1900 it covered also exempt realty, government land, and corporation and ptiblic personalty.
Finally, the strain upon municipal finances incident to a realization of civic improvements has called attention to intangible wealth: street railways are no longer taxed as scrap iron but as working systems, with due attention to their franchises; and there is a beginning of the doctrine that the increase in value of unimproved realty constitutes income that should be taxed.
The state revenue is derived from a general property tax, a poll tax, an income tax, a tax on transfers of realty, an ad valorem tax on the average capital invested by merchants in their business, a privilege tax on merchants and many other occupations and businesses; a tax on litigation, levied on the unsuccessful party, a collateral inheritance tax, and fines and forfeitures.
Realty at first fell a half in value, labour rose many times in price.
In1855-1856a disastrous commercial panic crippled the city; and in 1858, when at the height of the Fraser river gold-mine excitement it seemed as though Victoria, B.C., was to supplant San Francisco as the metropolis of the Pacific, realty values in the latter city dropped for a time fully a half in value.
In the case of corporations realty and machinery are taxed generally by the local authorities, and stock values by the commonwealth.