If Alexander is responsible for such doctrines as that of the intellectus acquisitus, it is to Porphyry, with his characteristically Platonist preference for the doctrine of universals, and for classification, that we owe the scholastic preoccupation with the realist controversy, and with the quinque votes, i.e.
He begins as an empiricist or realist, with given matter-of-fact; but from time to time (e.g.
In the matter of Universals, Duns was more of a realist and less of an eclectic than Aquinas.
In Germany, for example, Eugen Diihring (q.v.) was a realist, whose intention is to prove against Kant a knowledge of the thing in itself by attributing time, space and categories generally to the real world.
It is a notable feature of the new movement, that except verbally, in a certain licence of nominalist expression, due to the swing of the pendulum away from the realist doctrine of universals, there is little that we can characterize as Empiricism.
He was content to voice the cry for the overthrow of the dominant system as such, and to call for a new beginning, with no realist presuppositions.
The youngest literary generation in Czechoslovakia was represented in 1921 in particular by three leading poets: So y a, a writer of delicate lyrics; Bezruc, who sings of social and national oppression, and Bi'ezina, a profound visionary and pantheistic mystic. Among prose writers the leading contemporary names are Svobodova, apek, a robust realist, and Sramek, who has also met with success as a dramatist.
Though a strong realist tendency is evident in the system of Erigena (9th century), the controversy was not definitely started till the 11th century: it lasted till the middle of the 12th, when the first period of scholastic philosophy ends.
Remigius is thus a Realist, not so much in the sense of Plato as in the spirit of Parmenides, and Haureau applies to this form of Realism Bayle's description of Realism in general as " le Spinosisme non developpe."
He has been called Kantian and Neo-Kantian, Realist and Idealist (by himself, for he held that appearance and reality are co-extensive and coincident).
The realist, then, ought to begin with metaphysics without psychological prejudices.
As a convinced realist he took his standpoint on nature and experience, and could afford to look on objectively at the controversies of the metaphysicians.
Forcing upon the Realist a material change of doctrine, he was once more victorious, and thenceforth he stood supreme.
Though he may technically be classed as an " extreme realist, " Duns is the forerunner of those later Nominalists, like William of Occam, who unsettled every intellectual ground of belief in order that they might resettle belief upon Church authority, not reason but rather scepticism being for them the ancilla domini.
Count Billow, indeed, though, like Bismarck, a "realist," utilitarian and opportunist in his policy, made no effort to emulate the masterful independence of the great chancellor.
A realist in principle, Louis XIV.
He dissents as a realist from the Cosmological argument in the form' in which 'it concludes from " contingent " to " necessary " being.
But now the greater boldness of the dialecticians awakened a spirit of general distrust in the exercise of reason on sacred subjects, and we find even a Realist like Gilbert de la Porree arraigned by Bernard and his friends before a general council on a charge of heresy (at Rheims, 1148).
The six books pass in review (1) the doctrine of the soul, in which Gersonides defends the theory of impersonal reason as mediating between God and man, and explains the formation of the higher reason (or acquired intellect, as it was called) in humanity, - his view being thoroughly realist and resembling that of Avicebron; (2) prophecy; (3) and (4) God's knowledge of facts and providence, in which is advanced the curious theory that God does not know individual facts, and that, while there is general providence for all, special providence only extends to those whose reason has been enlightened; (5) celestial substances, treating of the strange spiritual hierarchy which the Jewish philosophers of the middle ages accepted from the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius, and also giving, along with astronomical details, much of astrological theory; (6) creation and miracles, in respect to which Gerson deviates widely from the position of Maimonides.
Epistemologically von Hartmann is a transcendental realist, who ably defends his views and acutely criticizes those of his opponents.