The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
Solutions of yttria salts in their behaviour to reagents are not unlike those of zirconia.
The study of the differentiation of protoplasm was at that time seldom undertaken, and no particular attention was paid either to fixing it, to enable staining methods to be accurately applied to it, or to studying the action of chemical reagents upon it.
In some cases it shows, when submitted to a careful examination under the highest powers of the microscope, and especially when treated with reagents of various kinds, traces of a more or less definite structure in the form of a meshwork consisting of a clear homogeneous substance containing numerous minute bodies known as microsomes, the spaces being filled by a more fluid ground-substance.
Cells treated by reagents, has been interpreted by many observers as a network of threads embedded in a homogeneous ground-substance.
It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
Staining reagents can also be used to differentiate lignified cell-walls.
It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.
In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.
Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric acids; and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia.
Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.
The reagents in common use are: Millon's reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction).
Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.
If the two reagents are mixed a precipitate of yellow stannic sulphide is produced.
The substance is very resistant to the action of chemical reagents, to digestion, and possibly belongs to the glyco-proteids.
On the other hand, the reagents by which such modifications are apt to be produced are not necessarily simple; many of them likewise are known to be of very high degrees of complexity, approaching perhaps in complexity the molecules to which they are akin.
But of the rest the majority, when treated with boiling sufficiently strong alkali, are attacked at least superficially; of ordinary metals only gold, platinum, and silver are perfectly proof against the reagents under consideration, and these accordingly are used preferably for the construction of vessels intended for analytical operations involving the use of aqueous caustic alkalis.
Sometimes reagents are placed in the combustion tube, for example lead oxide (litharge), which takes up bromine and sulphur.
The venom is destroyed by reagents which precipitate prdteids in an insoluble form, or which destroy them, e.g.
There have also been introduced processes in which the chlorine is generated in the chloridizing vat, the reagents used being dilute solutions of bleaching powder and an acid.
The metallic cyanides may be detected by adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid to their solution, when a precipitate of Prussian blue is produced; if the original solution contains free acid it must be neutralized by caustic potash before the reagents are added.
P. 670) that the velocity of formation of the amino-azo compound depends only on the nature of the reagents and not on the concentration, and that in coupling the hydrochloride of a tertiary amine with diazobenzene suiphonic acid the reaction takes place between the acid and the base set free by the hydrolytic dissociation of its salt, for the formation of the amino-azo compound, when carried out in the presence of different acids, takes place most rapidly with the weakest acid (H.
If the cortical layer should exhibit positive reaction and the medulla of the same species a negative reaction with both reagents, the result is represented thus, K CaCI i.
If a reaction is only produced after the consecutive addition of the two reagents, this is symbolized by K(CaC1) +.
These pigments primarily depend upon special acids contained in the thalli of lichens, and their presence may readily be detected by means of the reagents already noticed.
Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.
The diazonium salts are characterized by their great reactivity and consequently are important reagents in synthetical processes, since by their agency the amino group in a primary amine may be exchanged for other elements or radicals.
Nitrous acid, and other reagents rape oil gives also characteristic colorations; but these are modified according to the degree of purity of the oil itself.
As a result the fatigued cells appear shrunken, and their reaction to staining reagents alters, thus showing chemical alteration.
The cuticularized epidermis, especially, is often thus preserved, and may be removed by the use of appropriate reagents and examined microscopically.
Wharfinger states that in chlorosis the specific action of iron is only obtained by administering those inorganic preparations which give a reaction with the ordinary reagents; the iron ions in a state of dissociation act as a catalytic agent, destroying the hypothetical toxin which is the cause of chlorosis.
In the case of solid reagents, e.g.
The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.
The leading reagents are salt (NaC1), sulphur trioxide (S03, produced in the roasting), and steam (H 2 0).
Chemical reagents are sometimes added - lime or sulphuric acid, to neutralize an excess of acid or alkali; copper sulphate, to form cuprous chloride with sodium chloride; and iron and zinc, to make the galvanic action more energetic and reduce the consumption of iron.
By the action of various reagents such as lime, caustic potash, hydrochloric acid, &c., acetone is converted into condensation products, mesityl oxide C6H10O, phorone C 9 1 14 0, &c., being formed.
The methods used in the assay for iron are volumetric, and are all based on the property possessed by certain reagents of oxidizing iron from the ferrous to the ferric state.
In the filamentous forms the individual cells are often difficult to observe until reagents are applied (e.g.
Jute, indeed, is much more woody in texture than either flax or hemp, a circumstance which may be easily demonstrated by its behaviour under appropriate reagents; and to that fact is due the change in colour and character it undergoes on exposure to the air.
These were lists, prepared by collating observations on the actions of substances one upon another, showing the varying degrees of affinity exhibited by analogous bodies for different reagents, and they retained their vogue for the rest of the century, until displaced by the profounder conceptions introduced by C. L.