As protector Nicholas of the Orthodox Christians he espoused the cause of L and the the rayahs in Greece, Servia and Rumania.
In these two incidents the tsar perceived a diminution of Russian prestige and influence in Turkey, and Prince Menshikov was sent on a special mission to Constantinople to obtain reparation in the form of a treaty which should guarantee the rights of the Orthodox Church with regard to the Holy Places and confirm the protectorate of Russia over the Orthodox rayahs, established by the treaties of Kainarji, Bucharest and Adrianople.
His failure to do so - in externals - left him isolated in his empire: rayahs and true believers alike distrusted and hated him.
This corruption was fatally apparent in the army, the feudal basis of which was sapped by the confiscation of fiefs for the benefit of nominees of favourites of the harem, and by the intrusion, through the same influences of foreigners and rayahs into the corps of janissaries, of which the discipline became more and more relaxed and the temper increasingly turbulent.
The dhimmi of Sicily were in essentially the same case as the rayahs of the Turk.
Five classes of rayahs existed under Turkish rule, - (i) the Greek, or Roum milleti; (2) the Armenian, or Emeni milleti; (3) the Catholic Armenians - eremeni gatoliki milleti; (4) the Latin Christians, or Roum gatoliki milleti; and (5) the Jews, or ichondi milleti.
In 1125 he carried out a great raid through Mahommedan Spain, camping in its midst for months, and returning with many thousands of the Christian rayahs, who, under the name of Mozrabes, had hitherto continued to live under Moslem rule.
Their origin must probably be sought in the action of communities of Mozhrabes, Christians living under Moslem rule as rayahs, who put themselves under Christian chiefs of the early days of the reconquest for The Towns.