The rating of ships began in the 17th century, and was at first done roughly by size and number of crew.
The municipal rating value was, in 1880 £2,054,204, in 1901 £9,475,260, in 1908 (when the rate levied was 3d.
All matters relating to the exercise of the powers of the education authority (except those of rating and borrowing) must be referred to the committee, and before exercising any of their powers the council must (except in cases of emergency) receive and consider the report of the education committee with respect to the matter in question.
The only other point to be noticed in this connexion is that an urban council may divide their district into parts for all or any of the purposes of the act, rating each part separately for those purposes.
They still have power to give relief to poor persons in case of sudden and urgent necessity, but their principal duty is that of rating authority, and they are bound to make out the lists for their parishes of jurors and electors.
Statistics of exports and imports were compiled for various years by writers like Newenham, Arthur Young and Cesar Moreau, but these are vitiated by being given in Irish currency which was altered from time to time, and by the fact that the method of rating at the custom-house also varied.
Rating, in maritime vocabulary, is the classification of men according to rank, and was formerly employed to class ships of a navy according to strength.
Later the rating was by guns.
Undoubtedly also commercial confidence was restored by the reconstruction in 1895 of the Bank of New Zealand, and activity has been stimulated by large public loans, while more cautious banking and the systems of taxation and rating on land values, adopted in 1891 and 1896, have done something to check land speculation.
They remain, however, the rating authority so far as regards the poor rate and nearly all other rates, the exceptions being the general district rate in an urban district and the borough rate in a borough, made by the town council.
After many debates, in which the Commons showed little disposition to give the ministry any effective support, an amendment was carried by Lord Dunkellin, the eldest son of Lord Clanricarde, basing the borough franchise on rating instead of rental.
The towns gained nothing by the agricultural grant, but union rating was established for the first time.
Among the incidental operations are (a) the valuation of the bullion by weighing and assaying it; (b) " rating" the bullion, or calculating the amount of copper to be added to make up the standard alloy; (c) recovering the values from ground-up crucibles, ashes and floor sweepings (the Mint " sweep "); (d) assaying the melted bars; (e) " pyxing " the finished coin or selecting specimens to be weighed and assayed; (f) " telling " or counting the coin.
For twenty years thereafter the political history of the colony consisted of two long, intermittent struggles - one constitutional between the central government (first seated in Auckland, but after 1864 in Wellington) and the powerful provincial councils, of which there were nine charged with important functions and endowed with the land revenues and certain rating powers.