In 1890 matters were on the eve of a great change and wages fell, in most cases to a point 20% below the rates of 1885.
This was the planting of a colony of communistic per week for which such wages are payable, with the rates for overtime when those hours are exceeded.
Formerly 2700 retired seamen were boarded within it, and 5000 or 6000 others, called outpensioners, received stipends at various rates out of its funds; but in 1865 an act was passed empowering the Admiralty to grant liberal pensions in lieu of food and lodging to such of the inmates as were willing to quit the hospital, and in 1869 another act was passed making their leaving on these conditions compulsory.
Interest was charged at very high rates for overdue loans of this.
In the traffic; and similar statistics pointing to increase of business consequent on reduction of rates were produced in regard to France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
The Belgian government endeavoured by reducing rates and increasing facilities to stimulate inland telegraphy in the hope of thereby increasing the profits of the department.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
The anticipations as to the increase of messages that would result from the reduction of rates were fully realized.
The following year the rates to and from East and South Africa were reduced, by negotiation, from charges varying from 7s.
The station was opened shortly afterwards for public service, the rates being greatly below that then current for the cable service.
The company consented to free intercommunication between its subscribers and those of the Post Office, and undertook to charge rates identical with those charged by the Post Office.
Differences not only in the size of towns, but in the arrangement and char - acter of the population, make each district a telephone problem b3, itself, and nullify close comparisons between telephone rates and telephone efficiencies in different areas and different countries.
The toll or message rates are £3, with id.
The trunk line service is charged for on rates which vary from 3d.
A reduction has been made in the charges for trunk calls at night, and calls for single periods of three minutes are allowed at half the ordinary rates between 7 p.m.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
Birth and marriage rates vary considerably, being highest in the centre and south (Umbnia, the Marches, Apulia, Abruzzi and Molise, and Calabria) and lowest in the north (Piedmont, Liguria and Venetia), and in Sardinia.
The principal causes are the growth of population, and the over-supply of and low rates of remuneration for manual labor in various Italian provinces.
Wages vary greatly in different parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of life, the degree of development of working-class needs and the state of working-class organization, which in some places has succeeded in increasing the rates of pay.
At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.
Rates of exchange, or, in other words the gold premium, favored Italy during the yearr immediately following the abolition of the forced currency in 1881
- In 1885, however, rates tended to rise, and though they fell in I 88(they subsequently increased to such an extent as to reach 1IoA at the end of August 1894.
In 1900 the maximum rate was 107.32, and the minimum 105.40, but in 1901 rates fell considerably, and were at par in 1902-1909.
(e) The recovery of tithes and church dues, including in England church rates levied to repair or improve churches and churchyards.
(5) Church rates can no longer be enforced by suit (31 & 32 Vict.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
McPherson, Railroad Freight Rates (New York, 1909); S.
If they compete at some points and not at others, they produce a discrimination or preference with regard to rates and facilities, which builds up the competitive points at the expense of the non-competitive ones.
It produces an uncertainty with regard to rates which prevents stability of prices, and is apt to promote the interests of the unscrupulous speculator at the expense of those whose business methods are more conservative.
So marked are these evils that such partial competition is avoided by agreements between the competing lines with regard to rates, and by divisions of traffic, or pools, which shall take away the temptation to violate such rate agreements.
On principles governing railway rates in general, and specifically in England, see Acworth, The Railways and the Traders (London, 1891).
On practice concerning rates in continental Europe, see Ulrich, Des Eisenbahntarifwesen (Berlin, 1886).
(Since this was published, continental passenger rates havefallen.
As a rule, the making of rates was left to the corporations.
If the maximum rates were prescribed, as they sometimes were, the limit was placed so high as to be of no practical value for control.
Such crude attempts as were made to prevent rates from being excessive concerned themselves with profits, and were designed to confiscate for the state treasury any earnings beyond a certain prescribed dividend.
Publicity of rates was not generally required, and provisions against discrimination were rare.
To the unusual temptations thus offered for favouritism and discriminations in rates, the railways generally yielded.
In the first instance laws were enacted prescribing schedules of maximum freight and passenger rates with stringent penalties against rebates and discriminations.
Most of them had power to impose schedules of maximum rates; practically all of them had authority to prescribe rates upon complaint of shippers; and they could all seek the aid of the courts to enforce their decrees.
Their power to initiate rates, conferred upon them by their legislatures, was sustained by the Supreme Court of the United States, the Court reserving to itself only the power to decide whether the prescribed rates were reasonable.