Charles II.of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, commonly known as the " Northern Neck."
Pope now fell back behind the Rappahannock without showing fight.
The leading troops of the Army of the Potomac were now landed, and set out to join Pope's army, which faced Longstreet and Jackson on the Rappahannock between Bealton and Waterloo.
Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded, but his men and those of Longstreet's who had remained with Lee defeated Hooker and forced him to retire again beyond the Rappahannock, though he had double Lee's force.
Such is the origin of the branching bays or "drowned river valleys," among which may be noted the lower Potomac, Rappahannock, York and James rivers.
The first blast-furnace in the colony seems to have been owned by Governor Spotswood, and was built and operated at the head of the Rappahannock river about 1715 by a colony of German Protestants.
There is a large foreign trade and a regular steamship service to Boston, Providence, New York, Philadelphia and Savannah from Norfolk, and there is a considerable traffic on Chesapeake Bay, the Rappahannock, York, James and Elizabeth rivers.
Fredericksburg at the head of navigation on the Rappahannock and West Point on the York have traffic of commercial importance in lumber and timber, oysters and farm produce, cotton and tobacco especially being shipped in coastwise vessels from West Point.
The great majority of whites were small farmers whose condition was anything but desirable and who constantly encroached upon the Indian lands in the Rappahannock region or penetrated the forests south of the James, several thousand having reached North Carolina.
Lawrence inherited the estate at Hunting Creek, on the Potomac,_ later known as Mount Vernon, and George the estate on the Rappahannock, nearly opposite Fredericksburg, where his father usually lived.
Between 1707 and 1740 many Scottish immigrants, traders, teachers and tobacco-growers settled along the upper Rappahannock, and, uniting with the borderers in general, they offered strong resistance to the older planters on the James and the York.