The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
21 shows the pressure-volume diagram of the Rankine cycle for one pound of steam where the initial pressure is 175 lb per square inch by the 19t, gauge, equivalent to 190 lb per square inch absolute.
Scots Law: Hunter, on Landlord and Tenant (Edinburgh, 4th ed., 1876); Rankine, on Land Ownership (Edinburgh, 3rd ed., 1891); Rankine, on Leases (Edinburgh, 2nd ed., 1893); Hunter, Landlord and Tenant (4th ed.
WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE (1820-1872), Scottish engineer and physicist, was born at Edinburgh on the 5th of July 1820, and completed his education in its university.
Rankine was the earliest of the three founders of the modern science of Thermodynamics on the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and J.
Rankine died at Glasgow on the 24th of December 1872.
Patten in 1824; whilst in 1881 Rankine Kennedy resuscitated the idea for the purpose of exhausting filament electric lamps.
(16) An equation of a similar form had previously been employed by Rankine (Trans.
One or two chapters on the subject are also generally included in treatises on the steam engine, or other heat engines, such as those of Rankine, Perry or Ewing.
Of greater interest, particularly from a historical point of view, are the original papers of Joule, Thomson and Rankine, some of which have been reprinted in a collected form.
Rankine proved (Applied Mechanics, p. 370) that the necessary strength of a stiffening girder would be only one-seventh part of that of an independent girder of the same span as the bridge, suited to carry the same moving load (not including the dead weight of the girder which is supported by the chain).
Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.
Rankine, was therefore much vivified by Lord Kelvin's specification (Comptes Rendus, 1889) of a material gyrostatically constituted medium which would possess this character.
By Ferguson; Edinburgh, 1897); Rankine, Law of Landownership (3rd ed., 1891).
Rankine (Proc. R.S.E.
The first accurate calculations of the specific heats of air and gases were made by Rankine in a continuation of the paper already quoted.
40 deduced from the velocity of sound, Rankine found for air S = 240, which was much smaller than the best previous determinations (e.g.
1.40, Rankine found S = .385, a value which he used, in default of a better, in calculating some of the properties of steam, although he observed that it was much larger than the coefficient .305 in Regnault's formula for the variation of the total heat.
They are not sufficient alone, but give good results when modified, as in the simple and accurate formulae of Rankine, Kirchhoff, L.
The formulae of Rankine and Unwin, though probably less accurate over the whole range, are much simpler and more convenient in practice than that of Biot, and give results which suffice in accuracy for the majority of purposes.
Formula (23) for the vapour-pressure was subsequently deduced by Rankine (Phil.
The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.
Rankine and J.
The practical application of mechanics may be divided into two classes, according as the assemblages of material In view of the great authority of the author, the late Professor Macquorn Rankine, it has been thought desirable to retain the greater part of this article as it appeared in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia.
Then from the proportionality and parallelism sides of a triangle, there results the following of the load and the two resistances applied to each piece of the structure to the three theorem (originally due to Rankine): If from the angles of the polygon of loads there be drawn lines (Ri, R2, &c.), each of which is parallel to the resistance (as Pi F2, &c.) exerted FIG.
In the polygon of loads the direction of a load sustained by parallel resistances traverses the point O-i i Since the relation discussed in 7 was enunciated by Rankine, an enormous development has taken place in the subject of Graphic Statics, the first comprehensive textbook on the subject being Die Graphische Statik by K.
Rankine, Machinery and Millwork and Applied Mechanics; W.
In 1871 the late Professor Rankine, F.R.S., whose remarkable perception of the practical fitness or unfitness of purely theoretical deductions gives his writings exceptional value, received from Major Tulloch, R.E., on behalf of the municipality of Bombay, a request to consider the subject generally, and with special reference to very high dams, such as have since been constructed in India.
Rankine pointed out that before the vertical pressure reached the maximum pressure permissible, the pressure tangential to the slope might do so.
Next, Rankine pointed out that, in a structure exposed to the overturning action of forces which fluctuate in amount and direction, there should be no appreciable tension at any point of the masonry.
Rankine in his report adopted the prudent course of taking as the safe limits certain pressures to which, at that time, such structures were known to be subject.
For simplicity of calculation Rankine chose logarithmic curves for both the inner and outer faces, and they fit very well with the conditions.
After Rankine, a French engineer, Bouvier, gave the ratio of the maximum stress in a dam to the maximum vertical stress as 1 to the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant which, in dams of the usual form, is about as 13 is to 9.
Rankine and others.
The question was investigated by Rankine in an article in the Engineer (April 9, 1869).