Ramus; ex, Outer ramus.
In front of it the narrow waist is formed by the soft sternal area of the praegenital somite; 2, the sternite of the 2 second opisthosomatic somite covering the posterior pair of lung-sacs; and 4, the spinning appendages (limbs) of the opisthosoma; a, inner, b, outer ramus of the appendage; I I, sternite of the eleventh --
The evidence of Peter Ramus (1515-1572) on this point is interesting, but he gives no authority for his singular statements.
He projected numerous other works, as is shown by a letter to Peter Ramus in 1568, which Adrian Romanus inserted in the preface to his Idea of Mathematics.
PETRUS RAMUS, or Pierre De La Ramee (1515-1572), French humanist, was born at the village of Cuth in Picardy in 1515, a member of a noble but impoverished family; his father was a charcoal-burner.
Ramus outdid his predecessors in the impetuosity of his revolt.
Meanwhile Ramus, as graduate of the university, had opened courses of lectures; but his audacities drew upon him the hostility of the conservative party in philosophy and theology.
By him it was referred to a commission of five, who found Ramus guilty of having "acted rashly, arrogantly and impudently," and interdicted his lectures (1544).
The logic of Ramus enjoyed a great celebrity for a time, and there existed a school of Ramists boasting numerous adherents in France, Germany and Holland.
Logic falls, according to Ramus, into two parts - invention (treating of the notion and definition) and judgment (comprising the judgment proper, syllogism and method).
Ramus also set the modern fashion of deducing the figures from the position of the middle term in the premises, instead of basing them, as Aristotle does, upon the different relation of the middle to the so-called major and minor term.
See Waddington-Kastus, De Petri Rami vita, scriptis, philosophia (Paris, 1848); Charles Desmaze, Petrus Ramus, professeur au College de France, sa vie, ses ecrits, sa mort (Paris, 1864); P. Lobstein, P. Ramus als Theolog (Strassburg, 1878); E.
Prantl, "Ober P. Ramus" in Miinchener Sitzungs berichte (1878); H.
None of them, in point of fact, has held its ground, and even his proposal to denote unknown quantities by the vowels A, E, I, 0, u, Y - the consonants B, c, &c., being reserved for general known quantities - has not been taken up. In this denotation he followed, perhaps, some older contemporaries, as Ramus, who designated the points in geometrical figures by vowels, making use of consonants, R, S, T, &c., only when these were exhausted.
Consequently, each primitive filament has a descending and an ascending ramus, and instead of each row forming a simple plate, the plate is double, consisting of a descending and an ascending lamella.
On the left side these lamellae are represented as having only a small reflected growth, on the right side the reflected ramus or lamella is complete (fr and er).
B,Diagram of the posterior face of a single complete filament with descending ramus and ascending ramus ending in a hook-like process;ep.,ep.,the ciliated junctions; il,j ., inter-lamellar junction.
Associated with this is the strength and sharpness of the lower jaw, the prominence and anterior pcsition of the masseteric ridge, and the depth of the ramus from the alveolar line to the angle.
He there applied himself to Oriental languages, but also attended the last course of lectures delivered by Turnebus in the Greek chair, as well as those of Peter Ramus, whose philosophical method and plan of teaching he afterwards introduced into the universities of Scotland.
After Aristotle, the term was used by the Stoics and the school of Ramus for a proposition simply, and Bacon (Nov.
But at first sight there is little sign of any greater contribution to the reconstruction than is to be found in Ramus or many another dead thinker.
The facial portion of the skull is very short; a long process of the maxillary bone descends from the anterior part of the zygomatic arch; and the ascending ramus of the mandible is remarkably high.
Sometimes the pair of appendages has not a merely tactile jointed ramus, but is converted into a claw or clasper.
It is not true that all the biting processes of the Arthropod limb are thus produced - for instance, the jaws of Peripatus are formed by the axis or corm itself, whilst the poisonjaws of Chilopods, as also their maxillae, appear to be formed rather by the apex or terminal region of the ramus of the limb; but the opposing jaws (= hemignaths) of Crustacea, Arachnida and Hexapoda are gnathobases, and not the axis or corm.
A second ramus, the " exopodite," often is also retained in the form of a palp or feeler.
A common modification of the chief ramus of the Arthropod parapodium is the chela or nipper formed by the elongation of the penultimate joint of the ramus, so that the last joint works on it FIG.
(5) One ramus (the endopodite) alone developed - the original axis or corm serving as its basal joint with or without gnathobase.
It varies as to the presence or absence of the jawprocess and as to the stoutness of the segments of the ramus, their number (frequently six, plus the basal corm), and the modification of the free end.
(7) The endopoditic ramus is greatly enlarged and flattened, without or with only one jointing, the corm (basal segment) is evanescent; often the plate-like endopodites of a pair of such appendages unite in the middle line with one another or by the intermediary of a sternal up-growth and form a single broad plate.
Terrestrial forms with small-jointed legs formed by adaptation of a single ramus of the appendage.
Head tritognathous and diprosthomerous - that is to say, with two prosthomeres, the first bearing typical eyes, the second a pair of appendages reduced to a single ramus, which is in more primitive forms antenniform, in higher forms chelate or retrovert.
As many as six pairs of appendages following the mouth may have an enlarged gnathobase actually functional as a jaw or hemignath, but a ramus is well developed on each of these appendages either as a simple walking leg, a palp or a chela.
Their position is:unknown in the more primitive forms. The more primitive forms have branchial respiratory processes developed on a ramus of each of the post-oral appendages.
With rare exceptions, branchial plates are developed either by modification of a ramus of the limbs or as processes on a ramus, or upon the sides of the body.
Not twenty years after Luther's defiance of the pope, the startling thesis " that all that Aristotle taught was false " was prosperously maintained by the youthful Ramus before the university of Paris; and almost contemporaneously the group of remarkable thinkers in Italy who heralded the dawn of modern physical science - Cardanus, Telesio, Patrizzi, Campanella, Bruno - began to propound their Aristotelian theories of the constitution of the physical universe.
A vigorous but ineffectual warfare had already been waged against the blind traditions of the schools by Ramus and Telesius, by Patricius and Campanella, and the revolution which Galileo completed had been prepared by his predecessors.
The horizontal ramus, long, straight, and compressed, gradually narrows towards the symphysis, where it expands laterally to form with the ankylosed opposite ramus the wide, semicircular, shallow alveolar border for the incisor teeth.
Its posterior end rests against the anterior surface of the transverse process of the atlas, from which it extends forwards and downwards, slightly curved, to beneath the ramus of the jaw.
Of other writers who published works about the end of the 16th century, we may mention Jacques Peletier, or Jacobus Peletarius (De occulta parte Numerorum, quam Algebram vocant, 1558); Petrus Ramus (Arithmeticae Libri duo et totidem Algebrae, 1560), and Christoph Clavius, who wrote on algebra in 1580, though it was not published until 1608.