A good bottom may be formed by chalk rammed down close.
A naval battle was fought on the 5th of May 1864, in which the double-ender "Sassacus" most gallantly rammed the "Albemarle" and was disabled alongside her, and Smith's vessel and others, unarmoured as they were, fought the ram at close quarters.
A sheet iron case is then placed within the furnace, and the space between it and the walls rammed with limed charcoal; the interior is filled with fragments of the iron or copper to be alloyed, mixed with alumina and coarse charcoal, broken pieces of carbon being placed in position to connect the electrodes.
Such stones may be of any size subject to each of them covering only a small proportion of the width of the structure (in the Vyrnwy dam they reached 8 or 10 tons each), and the spaces between them, where large enough, must be similarly built in with smaller, but always the largest possible, stones; spaces too small for this treatment must be filled and rammed with concrete.
The Heroult cell consists of a square iron or steel box lined with carbon rammed and baked into a solid mass; at the bottom is a cast-iron plate connected with the negative pole of the dynamo, but the actual working cathode is undoubtedly the layer of already reduced and molten metal that lies in the bath.
Tabiya or rammed concrete of red earth and stone is the almost universal building material, and the houses are consequently seldom more than two storeys in height.
By dredging, or some form of mechanical excavator, until the formation is reached which is to support the pier; the concrete is then shot into the enclosed space from a height of about io ft., and rammed down in layers about i ft.
The materials required are iron borings, sal-ammoniac and sulphur; these are mixed together, moistened with water, and rammed into the socket, which is previously half filled with yarn, well caulked.
The materials on the coast were clay and gravel wrought into concrete, sun-dried bricks and pise, or rammed work, cut stalks of plants formed with clay a kind of staff, and lintels were made by burying stems of cana brava (Gynerium saccharoides) in blocks of pise.
If the situation is cool, the stone hard, and the concrete carefully rammed directly it is laid down and kept moist with damp cloths, only just sufficient to moisten the whole mass is required.
If for important walls, or for small scantlings such as steel concrete generally involves, the concrete should be deposited in quite small quantities and very carefully rammed ng osit- into position.
In the formation of lawns the ground must be regularly broken up so that it may settle down evenly, any deep excavations that may have to be filled in being very carefully rammed down to prevent subsequent settlement.
This mixture may be rammed in place, or baked blocks of it may be laid up like a masonry wall.
The threshing-floor must be smooth and rammed hard to leave no crevices for weeds and small animals to get through.
Passing the first of these vessels with terrific broadsides, the "Merrimac" rammed the "Cumberland" and then turned her fire again on the "Congress," which in an attempt to escape ran aground and was there under fire from three other Confederate gun-boats which had meanwhile joined the "Merrimac."
The mixing and laying should all be done very thoroughly; the concrete should be rammed in position, and any old surface of concrete which has to be covered should be cleaned and coated with fresh cement.