From Liverpool, served by the London & North-Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways and the Cheshire lines.
Alp 1 Dindings Medan Scale, t:R.000,000 English Miles oto 50 too 150 Railways «.*+ British Possessions...-...
From Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany.
It has stations on the London & North-Western and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways, with running powers for the Midland railway.
It is served by the Missouri Pacific, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Kansas City Southern railways, and by interurban electric lines.
The city is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio, and the Southern railways, and is best known as the seat of the University of Virginia, which was founded by Thomas Jefferson.
It is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air line, the Southern, the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Norfolk & Western, the Norfolk & Southern and the Virginian railways, by many steamship lines, by ferry to Portsmouth (immediately opposite), Newport News, Old Point Comfort and Hampton, and by electric lines to several neighbouring towns.
Bay City is served by the Michigan Central, the Pere Marquette, the Grand Trunk and the Detroit & Mackinac railways, and by lake steamers.
By valleys, which are followed by the railways from Golfo degli Aranci to Chilivani, and from Chilivani to Sassari.
In the south-western portion of the island are several private railways belonging to various mining companies, of which the lines from Monteponi to Portoscuso, and from S.
It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, and the Lehigh Valley railways, and by the Cayuga & Seneca Canal.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
Paris is served by the Vandalia, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system) railways; the main line and the Cairo division of the latter intersect here, and the city is the transfer point for traffic from the E.
As a river-port and the terminus of railways from Varna and from Sofia via Trnovo, it has much commercial importance; and it possesses tobacco and cigarette factories, soap-works, breweries, aerated water factories, dyeworks, tanneries, sawmills, brick and tile works and a celebrated pottery.
North-west from London by the London & North-Western and the Midland railways, and is also served by the Great Northern and North Staffordshire railways.
It is divided between some twenty firms. The premises of Bass's brewery extend over Soo acres, while Allsopp's stand next; upwards of 5000 hands are employed in all, and many miles of railways owned by the firms cross the streets in all directions on the level, and connect with the lines of the railway companies.
In 1870 the site was a cotton field, where two railways, the South & North, and the Alabama & Chattanooga, now part respectively of the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern System, met.
Railways.The first important line in France, from Paris to Rouen, was constructed through the instrumentality of Sir Edward Blount (1809-1905), an English banker in Paris, who was afterwards for thirty years chairman of the Ouest railway.
1842 laid the foundation of the plan under which the railways have since been developed, and mapped out nine main lines, running from Paris to the frontiers and from the Mediterranean to the Rhine and to the Atlantic coast.
Construction proceeded under this law, but not with very satisfactory results, and new arrangements had to be made between 1852 and 1857, when the railways were concentrated in the hands of six great companies, the Nord, the Est, the Ouest, the Paris-Lyon-Mditerrane, the Orleans and the Midi.
The Nord, which serves the rich mining, industrial and farming districts of Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Aisne and Somme, connecting with the Belgian railways at several points.
The state railways served a large portion of western France, their chief lines being from Nantes via La Rochelle to Bordeaux, and from Bordeauxvia Saintes, Niort and Saumur to Chartres.
The following table, referring to lines of general interest, indicates the development of railways after 1885: ___________
Narrow gauge and normal gauge railways of local interest covered 3905 m.
It assigns its quota of taxes (contingent) to each arrondissement, authorizes the sale, purchase or exchange of departmental property, superintends the management thereof, authorizes the construction of new roads, railways or canals, and advises on matters of local interest.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
The railways are of different gauges, the standard narrow gauge of 4 ft.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.
Excluding coal lines and other lines not open to general traffic, the length of railways in private hands is only 382 m.
The bulk of this indebtedness has been contracted for the purpose of constructing railways, tramways, water-supplies, and other revenue-producing works and services, and it is estimated that only 8% of the total indebtedness can be set down for unproductive services.
Great success had attended the cultivation of cotton, and the high prices obtained for the Turkestan article (most of which is grown in Ferghana, where 742,000 acres were cultivated in 1915), coupled with the increase of railways, led to the abandonment of corn in favour of the cultivation of cotton, and, although W.
The total length of these railways in Bukhara was about 400 m.
Belleville is served by the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern railways, also by extensive interurban electric systems; and a belt line to O'Fallon, Illinois, connects Belleville with the Baltimore & Ohio South Western railway.
Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
These railways provide outlets for through freight and passenger traffic southward to Boston and New York, and to the north to St Johns and Montreal.
The southern part of the state was early opened to railways, the Sullivan County railway (operated by the Boston & Maine) having been opened in 1849; and in 1850 the state had 290 m.
Of Cleves at the junction of the railways CologneZevenaar and Boxtel-Wesel.
Have constructed branch railways at their own cost, the first of which was extended in 1901 to Hyderabad in Sind.
Delaware is served by the Pennsylvania, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system), and the Hocking Valley railways, and by two interurban lines.
The trade of the northern and western districts has to some extent been diverted to Salonica since the opening of the railways from that town to Mitrovitza and Monastir.
The development of commerce is retarded by lack of communications; the country possesses no railways and few roads.
From London on a branch from Nuneaton of the London & North Western and Midland railways, near the Ashby-dela-Zouch canal.
The first connexion with the United States was by two railways coming down the Red River valley.
The Canadian Northern railway has a remarkable network of railways connecting Winnipeg with every corner of Manitoba.
TECUCI (Tecuciu), the capital of the Tecuci department of Rumania, picturesquely situated among wooded hills, on the right bank of the river Berlad, and at the junction of railways from Bacau, Bcrlad and Galatz.
Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.
Market gardening is carried on both near towns and villages, where products find ready sale, and along the great railways, on account of transport facilities.
The total length, including the Sardinian railways, was 10,368 m.
Lombardy and Piedmont are much better provided with railways in proportion to their area than any other parts of Italy; next come Venetia, Emilia and the immediate environs of Naples.