The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.
They are enlarged replicas of the primeval wooden hut described above, having rafters with their upper ends crossed; thatched or shingled roof; boarded floors, and logs laid on the roof-ridge at right angles for the purpose of binding the ridge and the rafters firmly together.
In his study - a tower of refuge, separate from the house, which he has minutely described - he read, wrote, dictated, meditated, inscribed moral sentences which still remain on the walls and rafters, annotated his books, some of which are still in existence, and in other ways gave himself up to a learned ease.
To secure the greatest possible influx of light, some horticulturists recommend curvilinear roofs; but the superiority of these is largely due to the absence of rafters, which may also be dispensed with in plain roofs.
In glazing, the greater the surface of glass, and the less space occupied by rafters and astragals as well as overlaps, the greater the admission of light.
When forming part of a range a vinery would in most cases be a lean-to structure, with a sharp pitch (45°-50°) if intended for early forcing, and a flatter roof (40°) with longer rafters if designed for the main and late crops.
The bazaars are miserable structures, covered with mats laid on rafters of date trees.
" Lean-to," " shed," or " pent " roofs are practically developments of the flat roof, one end of the joists (which are now called " rafters ") being tipped up to form a decided slope, which enables slates, tiles, corrugated iron and other materials to be employed which cannot be used upon a " flat " roof.
Simple roofs in general use with a double slope are the " coupled rafter roofs," the rafters meeting at the highest point upon a horizontal ridge-piece which stiffens the framework and gives a level ridge-line.
Among the ancients it was in request for poles, rafters, joists, and for the construction of winepresses, tables and musical instruments; and on that account was so valuable that a plantation of cypresses was considered a sufficient dowry for a daughter.
Bamboo is extensively used as a timber wood, and houses are frequently made entirely out of the products of the plant; complete sections of the stem form posts or columns; split up, it serves for floors or rafters; and, interwoven in lattice-work, it is employed for the sides of rooms, admitting light and air.
The inner walls are often hung with hand-woven tapestries, which harmonize well with the smokeblackened rafters, the primitive loom and the huge Dutch stove characteristic of a prosperous Rumanian farm.
I hewed the main timbers six inches square, most of the studs on two sides only, and the rafters and floor timbers on one side, leaving the rest of the bark on, so that they were just as straight and much stronger than sawed ones.
The walls were all on fire and the back wall had fallen in, the wooden roof was collapsing, and the rafters were alight.
We have people whose tread was so light that no blade of grass bent beneath their weight.
Into the ground and the whole frameworkconsisting of posts, beams, rafters, door-posts and window-frames was tied together with cords made by twisting the long fibrous stems of climbing plants.
Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.
The windows were open with no glass, and heavy iron chandeliers hung from thick wooden rafters and were burning real candles.
In some old roofs the rafters are connected without any intervening ridge-plate, with the result that after Sectional elevation on AA.