The radiations interfere in an optical sense of the word, and in some directions reinforce each other and in other directions neutralize each other, so making the resultant radiation greater in some directions than others.
The evidence for the existence of the luminiferous aether has accumulated as additional phenomena of light and other radiations have been discovered; and the properties of this medium, as deduced from the phenomena of light, have been found to be precisely those required to explain electromagnetic phenomena."
Among extinct Tertiary mammals we can actually trace the giving off of these radii in all directions, for taking advantage of every possibility to secure food, to escape enemies and to reproduce kind; further, among such well-known quadrupeds as the horses, rhinoceroses and titanotheres, the modifications involved in these radiations can be clearly traced.
Thus the history of continental life presents a picture of contemporaneous radiations in different parts of the world and of a succession of radiations in the same parts.
We observe the contemporaneous and largely independent radiations of the hoofed animals in South America, in Africa and in the great ancient continent comprising Europe, Asia and North America; we observe the Cretaceous radiation of hoofed animals in the northern hemisphere, followed by a second radiation of hoofed animals in the same region, in some cases one surviving spur of an old radiation becoming the centre of a new one.
There results from continental and local adaptive radiations the presence in the same geographical region of numerous distinct lines in a given group of animals.
Because of the repetition of analogous physiographic and climatic conditions in regions widely separated both in time and in space, we discover that continental and local adaptive radiations result in the creation of analogous groups of radii among all the vertebrates and invertebrates.
O-KovEiv, to see), that branch of physical science which has for its province the investigation of spectra, which may, for our present purpose, be regarded as the product of the resolution of composite luminous radiations into more homogeneous components.
In the opinion of the writer the latter instrument will ultimately replace the bolometer, its only disadvantage being that the radiations have to traverse the side of a vessel, and are therefore subject to absorption.
This need not necessarily be interpreted as indicating the impossibility of rendering gases luminous by temperature only, for the transparency of the gas for luminous radiations may be such that the emission is too weak to be detected.
The spectra produced under these circumstances have been studied in detail by C. de Watteville.4 Of more frequent use have been electric methods, owing to the greater intensity of the radiations which they yield.
As a single electron charged negatively; these rays can penetrate sheets of aluminium, glass, &c., several millimetres thick; and (3) the 'y rays - which are non-electrified radiations characterized by a high penetrating power, i% surviving after traversing 7 cm.
When none of the radiations which fall on a body penetrates through its substance, then the ratio of the amount of radiation of a given wave-length which is absorbed to the total amount received is called the "absorptive power" of the body for that wave-length.
A body which absorbs all radiations of all wavelengths would be called a "perfectly black body."
All bodies when heated emit the same kind of radiations which they absorb - an important principle known as the principle of the equality of radiating and absorbing powers.
But all such bodies appear to lose their distinctive properties when heated in a vessel which nearly encloses them, for in that case those radiations which they do not emit are either transmitted through them from the walls of the vessel behind, or else reflected from their surface.
.It is true that within the body radiations must be stifled within a short distance of their source; none the less, they will determine a temperature gradient, falling from the centre to the borders, though for the most part falling very slowly, and we may ask what relative temperatures in different parts would maintain themselves if once established.
Since the only cause for these convection currents is the statical instability produced by radiation, and the rapid stifling of radiations within the body produces there a temperature gradient falling very slowly, they would be for the most part extremely slight.
The radiations from the sun must be considered in two parts, corresponding respectively to the continuous spectrum and the line-spectrum.
The " black body " is an ideal body with surface so constituted as to reflect no part of any radiations that fall upon it; in the case of such a body Kirchhoff and Balfour Stewart showed that unless energy were to be lost the rate of emission and absorption must be in fixed ratio for each specific wave-length.
The name has no reference to the appearance of the body to the eye; when emitting energy, its radiations will he of all wave-lengths, and if intense enough will appeal to the eye as luminous between about wave-lengths 7600 and 4000 tenth-metres; this intensity is a question of temperature, and as it is exquisitely inappropriate to speak of the bulk of the solar radiations as black, the writer will speak instead of amorphous radiations from an ideal radiator.
The space within is filled with radiations corresponding to this temperature, and these attain a certain equilibrium which permits the energy of radiation to be spoken of as a whole, as a scalar quantity, without express reference to the propagation or interference of the waves of which it is composed.
It is then found both by experiment and by thermodynamic theory that in these amorphous radiations there is for each temperature a definite distribution of the energy over the spectrum according to a law which may be expressed by 0 5 0(OX)dX, between the wave-lengths X, A+dX; and as to the form of the function 4), Planck has shown (Sitzungsber.
When we speak of the sun's radiation as a whole, it is assumed that it is of the character of the radiations from an ideal radiator at an appropriate temperature.
The fact is that radiation is not a superficial phenomenon but a molar one, and Stefan's law, exact though it be, is not an ultimate theory but only a convenient halting-place, and the radiations of two bodies can only be compared by it when their surfaces are similar in a specific way.
A photograph of the spectrum of Tebbutt's comet, taken by him on the 24th of June 1881, showed radiations of shorter wave-lengths but identical source, and in addition, a percentage of reflected solar light marked as such by the presence of some well-known Fraunhofer lines.
Its purport is that glowing vapours similarly circumstanced absorb the identical radiations which they emit.
It is clear that at least a considerable part of the solar radiations comes from a more or less diffuse atmosphere.
Its absorptive effects upon the radiations of the inner photosphere can be readily traced progressively from the centre to the rim of the sun's disk, and it has been measured as a whole by Langley, W.
The sun - at about 6700 0, shielded by an atmosphere at an average temperature of 5500°, and that such an atmosphere itself provides about 0.3 of the total radiations that reach us.
The movement towards contraction and consequent rise of temperature which radiation sets up, like other motions, overruns the equilibriumpoint, only however by a minute amount; the accumulated excesses from all past time now stored in the sun would maintain its radiations at their present rate for nX3000 years, that is, for a few thousand years only.
We know nothing quantitatively of the radiations from a nebulous body; and it is quite possible that the loss of radiant energy in this early stage was very small; but it is at least as certain as any other physical inference that 17,000,000 years ago the earth itself was of its present dimensions, a comparatively old body with sea and living creatures upon it, and it is impossible to believe that the sun's radiations were wholly different; but, if they were not, they have been maintained from some other source than contraction.