In some hydroids the founder-polyp, developed from a planula after fixation, throws out numerous outgrowths from the base to form the hydrorhiza; these outgrowths may be radially arranged so as to form by contact or coalescence a flat plate.
In the Mosses the plant-body (gametophyte) is always separable into a radially organized, supporting and conducting axis (stem)
At celtain points the cambium does not give rise to xylem and phloem elements, but cuts off cells on both sides which elongate radially and divide by horizontal walls.
In Gymnosperms, where vessels and fibres are absent, the late summer wood is composed of radially narrow thick-walled tracheids, the wood of the succeeding spring being wide-celled and thin-walled, so that the limit of the years growth is very well marked.
In the latter event the cells of the primary rays are either merely stretched radially, or they divide to keep pace with the growth of the bundles.
There is only one right and one left lobe, each traversed through its whole length by a mesobronchium, whence arise about ten secondary bronchia; these send off radially arranged parabronchia, which end blindly near the surface.
The more highly organized species have often very numerous eyes (Amphiporus, Drepanophorus), which are provided with a spherical refracting anterior portion, with a cellular " vitreous body," with a layer of delicate radially arranged rods, with an outer sheath of dark pigment, and with a separate nerve-twig each, springing from a common or double pair of branches which leave the brain as n.
Pectolite is a secondary mineral occurring as white masses with a radially fibrous structure in the veins and cavities of basic igneous rocks.
For instance, in a uniplanar flow, radially inward towards 0, the flow across any circle of radius r being the same and denoted by 27rm, the velocity must be mfr, and 0=m log r,, y=m0, +4,i =m log re ie, w=m log z.
The following is a brief description of the process and apparatus, as communicated by the courtesy of Messrs Henry Tate & Sons, Ltd.: Groups of cells or moulds are built within and against a cylindrical iron casing, by means of vertical plates inserted in grooves and set radially to the axis of the casing.
The nervous system consists of a ring below the suckers and of a large number of radially arranged tracts running forwards and backwards.
There is also a position circle, attached at m to the eye-end, provided with a slide to move the eye-piece radially from the axis of the telescope, and with a micrometer to measure the distance of an object from that axis.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.
The two are carried on a common frame, so arranged that a change in form of the spring causes a relative displacement of the disk and roller, the point of contact moving radially from or towards the centre of the disk.
The commonest state of aggregation is that of radially arranged fibres, the external surface of the mass being globular, nodular or stalactitic in form.
These and other manufacturing industries are greatly aided by the extensive water power furnished by the mountain streams which flow out radially from the central area.
When the rod extends or contracts longitudinally it contracts or .(- -U P extends radially and in the ratio a, known as Poisson's ratio, which in metals is not far from 4.
The current to be measured is passed through the coils of the electromagnet, then enters the mercury disk at the centre, flows through it radially in all directions, and emerges at the periphery.
The latter is slit radially, and the magnetic field is so arranged that it perforates each half of the disk in opposite directions.
From the great size of the trunk and the even grain of the red cedar-like wood it is a valuable tree to the farmer and carpenter: it splits readily and evenly, and planes and polishes well; cut radially, the medullary plates give the wood a fine satiny lustre; it is strong and durable, but not so elastic as many of the western pines and firs.
The grounds for this view are the radial symmetry of several Polyclads and the supposed origin of gonads and excretory flame-cells from the walls of gut, the occurrence of nematocysts in Anonymus, one of the most radially constructed Polyclads, and lastly the presence of two peculiar animals Ctenoplana and Coeloplana, which suggests a transition from Ctenophora to Polyclads.
The cylindrical branches of the fruticose forms are usually radially symmetrical, but the flattened branches of these forms and also the thalli of the foliaceous form show a difference in the cortex of the upper and lower side.
The medullary rays extend radially from the centre of the tree to the bark at right angles to the grain of the wood, and serve during life to bind the whole together as well as to convey nourishment from one part of the tree to another.
Lesser canals intersect the others radially, thus virtually dividing the city into a number of islands; whence it has been compared with Venice.
Orifice in the lining is more than 1000 times the mean velocity of the same water approaching the orifice radially when 16 in.
- Solitary, rarely colonial corals, with radially arranged septa and without tabulae.
- Colonial corals allied to the Amphiastraeidae, but with radially symmetrical septa arranged in cycles.
The plates at the tips of the rays) in Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea, and therefore not homologous with the radially disposed plates often seen around the aboral pole of those animals.
We may, with Sedgwick, suppose the coelom to have originated by the enlargement and separation of pouches that pressed outwards from the archenteron into the thickened body-wall (such structures as the genital pouches of some Coelentera, not yet shut off from the rest of the cavity), and they would probably have been four in number and radially disposed about the central cavity.
The evolution of this cavity into a gut is foreshadowed in some Coelentera by the elliptical shape of the aperture, and by the development at its ends of a ciliated channel along which food is swept; we have only to suppose the approximation of the sides of the ellipse and their eventual fusion, to complete the transformation of the radially symmetrical Coelenterate into a bilaterally symmetrical Coelomate with mouth and anus at opposite ends of the long axis.
A circlet of radially situate infrabasals (IBB) may also be present.