9); in the rabbinic literature "the fathers" are the more eminent of the earlier rabbis whose sayings were handed down for the guidance of posterity.
1104) with the Tosafoth (additions, not to be confused with the Tosefta) chiefly by the French school of rabbis following Rashi.
The great saying of each of these rabbis is concerned with the duties of a judge; the selection does justice to the importance of the Sanhedrin, which was filled with Pharisees.
How well their teaching served his purpose is shown by the sayings of two rabbis who, if not identical with these Pharisees, belong to their period and their party.
Many if not all of the professed rabbis had travelled outside Palestine: some were even members of the dispersion, like Hillel the Babylonian, who with Shammai forms the second of the pairs.
Herod's nominees were not the men to extend the prestige of the high-priesthood at the expense of these rabbis: even in Jerusalem the synagogue became of more importance than the Temple.
In its material embodiments Greek civilization became as much a part of Jewish life in Palestine as it was in Alexandria or Antioch; and herein the rabbis could not follow him.
Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.
By their labours in the education of the youth of the nation, these rabbis, Judas and Matthias, had endeared themselves to the populace and had gained influence over their disciples.
If they died, death was inevitable, the rabbis said, and no better death would they ever find.
Such is the account which Josephus gives in the Antiquities; in the Jewish War he represents the rabbis and their disciples as looking forward to greater happiness for themselves after such a death.
Though the majority of the rabbis looked for no such deliverer and refused to admit his claims, Barcochebas drew the people after him to struggle for their national independence.
Exception has been taken to a certain lack of sympathy with the Jews, especially the rabbis, which has been detected in the author.
It was now necessary to go farther, and the rabbis proclaimed a principle which was as influential with the synagogue as "Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's " became with the Church.
Within the Synagogue the reform movement began in 1825, and soon won many successes, the central conference of American rabbis and Union College (1875) at Cincinnati being the instruments of this progress.
His zeal, private and public, for Judaism is celebrated by Josephus and the rabbis; and the narrative of Acts xii.
And the evil effects of nervous degeneration find a more recent illustration in the mysticism of the Chasidim (Hdsidim, " saints "), a Jewish sect in eastern Europe which started from a movement in the 38th century against the exaggerated casuistry of contemporary rabbis, and combined much that was spiritual and beautiful with extreme emotionalism and degradation.
He was one of the first rabbis trained at the new type of seminary (Breslau).
Some rabbis interpreted Israel's dispersion as divinely designed for the very purpose of proselytizing (Pesahim 87b.).
In 1896 the central conference of American Rabbis formulated as a proselyte Confession of faith these five principles: (1) God the Only One; (2) Man His Image; (3) Immortality of the Soul; (4) Retribution; and (5) Israel's Mission.
1 In Aqiba's time Sirach and other apocryphal books were not reckoned among the Hisonim; for Sirach was largely quoted by rabbis in Palestine till the 3rd century A.D.
The later Rabbis wore most sumptuous apparel, and were crowned until the death of Eliezer ben Azarya.
Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305.
As a corollary of this he founded in 1875 the "Hebrew Union College" in the same city, and this institution has since trained a large number of the rabbis of America.
Wise also organized various general assemblies of rabbis, and in 1889 established the Central Conference of American Rabbis.
70) the liturgical use of the name ceased, but the tradition was perpetuated in the schools of the rabbis.'
The sect was called by the Rabbis Boethusians as being friendly to the family of Boethus, whose daughter Mariamne was one of Herod the Great's wives.
The city has also Saint Francis Xavier College (Roman Catholic, established in 1831 and until 1840 known as the Athenaeum); Saint Joseph College (Roman Catholic, 1873) Mount St Mary's of the West Seminary (Roman Catholic, theological, 1848, at Cedar Point, Ohio); Hebrew Union College (1875), the leading institution in the United States for educating rabbis; the largely attended Ohio Mechanics' Institute (founded 1828), a private corporation not conducted for profit, its object being the education of skilled workmen, the training of industrial leaders, and the advancement of the mechanic arts (in 1907 there were in all departments 1421 students, a large majority of whom were in the evening classes); an excellent art academy, modelled after that of South Kensington; the College of Music and the Conservatory of Music (mentioned below); the Miami Medical College (opened in 1852); the Pulte Medical College (homeopathic; coeducational; opened 1872); the Eclectic Medical Institute (chartered 1845); two women's medical colleges, two colleges of dental surgery, a college of pharmacy, and several business colleges.
4) sufficiently illustrates the tentative efforts of the rabbis in this direction.
The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.
No a priori distinction can be made and no precise chronological line can be drawn between the books of the Canon (Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Ezekiel and Proverbs had been at one time or another subjects of debate among the Rabbis) and the Apocrypha (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, Maccabees and Tobit, were " allowed "); and the intimate relation between them appears in the character of the " Wisdom Literature " (e.g.
In making allowance for the defects (without which they would probably not have appealed to the age) it must be remembered that some of the Rabbis themselves recognized that the Midrashic Haggada was not always estimable.
Onwards and the rest of the Pentateuch have independent Midrashim: the Law proper was held by the Rabbis to begin at Exod.
The Rabbis apparently dreaded the possibility of such terms becoming hypostasized into personal entities distinct from God.
Among Johnson's associates at this time may be mentioned Boyse, who, when his shirts were pledged, scrawled Latin verses sitting up in bed with his arms through two holes in his blanket, who composed very respectable sacred poetry when he was sober, and who was at last run over by a hackney coach when he was drunk; Hoole, surnamed the metaphysical tailor, who, instead of attending to his measures, used to trace geometrical diagrams on the board where he sat cross-legged; and the penitent impostor, George Psalmanazar, who, after poring all day, in a humble lodging, on the folios of Jewish rabbis and Christian fathers, indulged himself at night with literary and theological conversation at an alehouse in the City.
Unfortunately the methods pursued were as little reasonable as those adopted by the medieval Jewish Rabbis; instead of the context being studied as a whole, with a view to the recovery of its literal sense, each single verse was considered separately, and explained as an allusion to some obscure myth or as embodying some mystical meaning.
Moreover it is clear that our Lord denounced not all the Pharisees but the hypocrites only, as did the rabbis whose sayings are reported in the Talmud and other Jewish books.
Similarly the term Rabbins, or Rabbis, is applied to modern Jewish clergy.
This declaration disturbs the rabbis, who regard it as a blasphemous usurpation of Divine authority.
Publicans were classed with open sinners; and when Jesus went to this man's house and met a company of his fellows the rabbis were scandalized: " Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners ?
The rabbis had fenced the Sabbath round with minute commands, lest any Jews should even seem to work on the Sabbath day.
The controversy was renewed when a man with a withered hand appeared in the synagogue on the Sabbath, and the rabbis watched to see whether Jesus would heal him.
'AMORA (Hebrew for "speaker" or "discourser"), a title applied to the rabbis of the 2nd to 5th centuries, i.e.
For the efforts of the Rabbis to improve the legal principles in Galilee in the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D., see A.
It is probable that she treated the Jews in Palmyra with favour; she is referred to in the Talmud, as protecting Jewish rabbis (Talm.
It is recorded in the Talmud that Rabbis communicated the true pronunciation to their disciples once in seven years (Qiddushin, 71a).
Threatened with excommunication by the Rabbis of Jerusalem, Sabbatai returned to Smyrna (autumn of 1665).
According to Neubauer, it is the very text which was used by Jerome, after allowance has been made for the arbitrary methods of the Rabbis and of Jerome himself.
Talmud by the Qaraites in their controversies with the Rabbis we owe the preservation of this recension, incomplete though it is.
The Talmud states that many rabbis were born in the place.