The" kerk-raad "(kirk-session) met weekly, the magistrate being a member ex officio.
It is you - you members of the Raad and the Boers - who have lost the.
Sir Theophilus Shepstone, finding that the raad would not adopt any remedial measures, on the 12th of April 1877 issued a proclamation annexing the country.
The words were but the utterance of an individual Raad member, but they were only a shade less offensive than those used by Kruger in 1892, and they too accurately describe the attitude of the Boer executive.
In 1196 we read for the first time of councillors (consules, consiliarii, adjurati) as assessors of the magistrates, but these, who a little later were known as the Raad or council, were also nominated.
According to this, as emended by a later Gildebrief of 1347, the existing board of seven Schepenen were to retain office for life, but the new ones, elected yearly, were in future to be chosen by the Raad either in or outside the gilds.
The Raad itself was to be chosen by the aldermen of the gilds.
Two aldermen, later styled burgomasters, were to preside, the one over the Schepenen, the other over the Raad, sharing this presidency with two episcopal officials.
In this government, though the Schepenen retained a dignified precedence, all power was practically concentrated in the popularly elected Raad, even the estates of the see (Sticht) had "nothing to say in the city."
After the downfall of Oldenbarneveldt the office of lands'- advocate was abolished, and a new post, tenable for five years only, was erected in its place with the title of Raad-Pensionaris, or Pensionary of the Council, usually called by English writers.
This Raad of wealthy burghers gradually monopolized all power.
The bishop's bailiff (schout), with his nominated assessors (scabini), continued to exercise jurisdiction, but members of the Raad sat on the bench with him, and an appeal lay from his court to the Raad itself.
Had indeed been replaced by that of grand pensionary (Raad Pensionaris), but the duties assigned to the office remained the same, the only change of importance being that the advocate was appointed for life, the grand pensionary for a term of five years.
The monarchy, now dominant, and far wealthier than before, rested upon the support of the great nobles, many of whom held their lands by feudal tenure, and constituted the royal Raad, or council.
After a tumultuous scene, the aristocratic Raad rejected the " Instrument " altogether, whereupon the deputies of the commons proceeded to the palace and were graciously received by the king, who promised them an answer next day.
After a feeble attempt at a compromise the Raad gave way.
The Uitlanders once more petitioned, over 34,000 persons signing a memorial to the Raad for the extension of the franchise.
(Raad-Pensionaris) of Holland, for two decades held in his hands all the threads of administration, and occupied the same position of undisputed authority in the councils of the land as Oldenbarneveldt had done at the beginning of the century.
The grand pensionary (Raad-Pensionaris) was at once the president and chief administrative The Grand officer of the states.