The operations were carried on during eight years on a plain to the south of Quito; and, in addition to his memoir on this memorable measurement, La Condamine collected much valuable geographical information during a voyage down the Amazon.
The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
RIOBAMBA or Royabamba, a town of Ecuador, capital of the province of Chimborazo, on the railway between Guayaquil and Quito, about 85 m.
Lower than Quito, its climate is considerably colder, owing, perhaps, to its more exposed situation and the vicinity of so many snow-clad peaks.
Of Quito by the highway, and near the northern foot of Chimborazo.
Godin, a member of the French commission for measuring an arc of the meridian near Quito, became professor of mathematics at San Marcos in 1750; and the botanical expeditions sent out from Spain gave further zest to scientific research.
His consolidated empire extended from the river Ancasmayu north of Quito to the river Maule in the south of Chile.
The civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa, the sons of Huayna Capac, had been fought out in the meanwhile, and the victorious Atahualpa was at Cajamarca on his way from Quito to Cuzco.
The viceroy fled to Quito, but was followed, defeated and killed at the battle of Anaquito on the 18th of January 1546.
His associations with his principals were unhappy; the expedition was beset by many difficulties, and finally La Condamine separated from the rest and made his way from Quito down the Amazon, ultimately reaching Cayenne.
Placing himself at the head of the army, he marched on Quito in Ecuador.
A severe battle was fought at Pichincha, where, by the prowess of his colleague Sucre, the Spaniards were routed, and Quito was entered by the republicans in June 1822.
The country between Peru and Panama was subdued before 1537 by the conquest of Quito by Sebastian de Benalcazar 'and of New Granada by Jimenez de Quesada.
- Santo Domingo, Mexico, Panama, Lima, Guatemala, Guadalajara, Bogota, La Plata, Quito, Chile, Buenos Aires.
Of Bogota., on the old trade route between that city and Quito, in 2° 26' N., 76° 49' W.
These are known as the Quito, Ambato and Cuenca basins.
The three great basins, which are broken and subdivided by mountainous spurs and ridges, descend gradually toward the south, the Quito plain having an average elevation of 9500 ft.
They are also characterized by the increasing aridity of the plateau from north to south, the Quito plain being fertile and well covered with vegetation, and the Ambato and Cuenca plains being barren and desolate except in some favoured localities.
It is estimated that there was a considerable decrease in the elevation of this part of the Andes during the past century, Quito having sunk 26 ft.
Iliniza, which stands west by north of Cotopaxi, has two pyramidal peaks, and is one of the most interesting mountains of the Ecuadorean group. It stands at the western end of the Tiupullo ridge, and overlooks the Quito basin to the north-east.
It overlooks the Quito basin and has been ascended many times.
Among the many thermal springs throughout the Andean districts, the best known are at Belermos and San Pedro del Tingo, north-east of Quito; at Cachillacta, in the district of Nanegal; at Timbugpoyo, near Latacunga; at Banos (5906 ft.
North of the city of Quito, a very considerable part of its area has the temperature of the temperate zone, and snow-crowned summits are to be seen every day in the year from its great central plateau.
There is no great display of arboreal vegetation anywhere except in the valleys and lower passes where the rainfall is abundant, but in general terms it may be said that the rainfall and vegetation which characterize the Quito basin soon disappear as one proceeds southward, and are substituted by arid conditions.
In Quito the mean annual temperature is 58.8°, the diurnal variation 10°, the annual maximum 70°, and the annual minimum 45°.
The capital city of Quito is 9343 ft.
The flora of the Quito basin has been well studied by various European botanists, more especially by Dr William Jameson (1796-1873) of the university of Quito, who began the preparation of a synopsis of the Ecuadorean flora in 1864-1865 (Synopsis plantarum Quitensium, 2 vols., Quito, 1865).
The Reptilia include countless numbers of alligators in the Guayas and its tributaries and in the tide-water channels of many of the smaller rivers; many species of lizards, of which Mr Whymper found three in the Quito basin; snakes of every description from the huge anaconda of the Amazon region down to the beautifully marked coral snake; and a great variety of frogs and toads.
Of the Machachi basin, near Quito, which he calls a " zoologist's paradise," Mr Whymper writes (Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator): " Butterflies above, below and around; now here, now there, by many turns and twists displaying the brilliant tessellation of their under-sides...
The population of the provincial capitals is in some cases over-estimated, especially for Guayaquil and Quito, neither of which could have had 50,000 at the date of this estimate.
The population of Quito in May 1906 was 50,841, of which 1365 were foreigners.
Communications.-The first railway to be completed in Ecuador was the line between Guayaquil and Quito, 290 m.
In length, the last section of which was formally opened at Quito on the 25th of June 1908.
Of telegraph lines in operation, connecting Quito with all the principal towns.
280 a foreign tribe is said to have forced their way inland up the valley of the Esmeraldas; and the kingdom which they founded at Quito lasted for about 1200 years, and was gradually extended, both by war and alliance, over many of the neighbouring dominions.
In 1460, during the reign of the fourteenth Caran Shyri, or king of the Cara nation, Hualcopo Duchisela, the conquest of Quito was undertaken by Tupac Yupanqui, the Inca of Peru; and his ambitious schemes were, not long after his death, successfully carried out by his son Huayna-Capac, who inflicted a decisive defeat on the Quitonians in the battle of Hatuntaqui, and secured his position by marrying Pacha, the daughter of the late Shyri.
By his will the conqueror left the kingdom of Quito to Atahuallpa, his son by this alliance; while the Peruvian throne was assigned to Huascar, an elder son by his Peruvian consort.
War soon broke out between the two kingdoms, owing to Huascar's pretensions to supremacy over his brother; but it ended in the defeat and imprisonment of the usurper, and the establishment of Atahuallpa as master both of Quito and Cuzco.
As soon as the confusions and rivalries of the first occupation were suppressed, the recent kingdom of Quito was made a presidency of the Spanish viceroyalty of Peru, and no change of importance took place till 1710.
When, towards the close of the century, the desire for independence began to manifest itself throughout the Spanish colonies of South America, Quito did not remain altogether indifferent.
Two days after, the Spanish president of Quito, Don Melchor de Aymeric, capitulated, and the independence of the country was secured.
Dr Gabriel Garcia Moreno, professor of chemistry, the recognized leader of the conservative party at Quito, was ultimately elected by the national convention of 1861.
The public buildings of Quito were laid in ruins; and Ibarra, Otavalo, Cotacachi and several other towns were completely destroyed.
Next year a revolution at Quito, under Moreno, brought Espinosa's presidency to a close; and though the national convention appointed Carvajal to the vacant office, Moreno succeeded in securing his own election in 1870 for a term of six years.
President Moreno was eventually assassinated at Quito, in August 1875, and Dr Borrero was elected to the presidency, but his tenure of power was short.
1860), an American railway builder and financier whose connexion with the construction of the Guayaquil and Quito railway began in 1897.
Railway connexion with Quito (290 m.) was established in June 1908.
The Spaniards met with it in the neighbourhood of Quito, where it was cultivated by the natives.
Of Quito, near the confluence of the Alagues and Cutuchi to form the Patate, the headstream of the Pastaza.
Latacunga stands on the old road between Guayaquil and Quito and has a station on the railway between those cities.
Of Quito and 70 m.
In 1819 the great national hero, Bolivar (q.v.), effected a union between the three divisions of the country, to which was given the title of the Republic of Colombia; but in 1829 Venezuela withdrew, and in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, Quito or Ecuador followed her example.
A jealous feeling soon sprang up between him and Huascar, who insisted that Quito should be held as a dependent province of his empire.
The first ascent of the river was made in 1638 by Pedro Texiera, a Portuguese, who reversed the route of Orellana and reached Quito by way of the Rio Napo.
Later, the missionaries of Cuenca and Quito established many missions in the Pais de los Maynas, and made extensive use of the Pongo de Manseriche as an avenue of communication with their several convents on the Andean plateau.
From the Amazon the Napo is navigable for river craft up to its Curaray branch, a distance of about 216 m., and perhaps a few miles farther; thence, by painful canoe navigation, its upper waters may be ascended as far as Santa Rosa, the usual point of embarkation for any venturesome traveller who descends from the Quito tableland.
But the only well-authenticated observations we have of this kind show anomalies which have never been cleared up. This is especially the case with those of Chaplain George Jones, who spent eight months at Quito, Peru, at an elevation of more than woo ft., for the express purpose of observing the phenomenon in question.
Chaplain Jones concluded, from his observations at Quito, that the central line of the arch made an angle of 3° 20' with the ecliptic, the ascending node being in Taurus, near longitude 62°.
The houses of Quito are chiefly of the old Spanish or Moorish style.
Superior hand-made carpets are also made, and Quito artisans show much skill in wood carvings and in gold and silver works; the women excel in fine needlework and lace-making.
Quito derives its name from the Quitus, who inhabited the locality a long time before the Spanish conquest.
Its full title was San Francisco del Quito, and it was capital of the province or presidency of Quito down to the end of Spanish colonial rule.
There is only one highway in the country on which vehicles can be used, the paved road extending southward from Quito 115 m.