The Romans had, up to the end of the Republic, accepted only one official apotheosis; the god Quirinus, whatever his original meaning, having been identified with Romulus.
QUIRITES (literally "spearmen"; see QuIRiNus), the earliest name of the burgesses of Rome.
QUIRINUS, the Sabine name of the god Mars, probably an adjective meaning "wielder of the spear" (Quiris, cf.
Rev. xviii., p. 368) explains Quirinus as the oak-god (quercus), and Quirites as the men of the oaken spear.
In the religious system of Numa, Quirinus and Mars were both recognized as divine beings, distinct but of similar attributes and functions; thus, like Mars, Quirinus was at once a god of war and a nature god, the protector of fields and flocks.
Subsequently, at the end of the republic, Quirinus became identified with the deified Romulus, son of Mars.
One of the greater flamens was attached to the service of Quirinus, a second college of Salii founded in his honour, and a festival "Quirinalia" celebrated on the 17th of February, the day of the supposed translation of Romulus to heaven.
The petroleum (Quirinus-oil) found in the neighbourhood of the lake takes its name from him.
Finally, we must notice, as the sign of the synoecismus of the two settlements, the inclusion of the Colline deity, Quirinus, apparently the Mars of the originally rival community.
In these three deities, Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus, we have the great triad of the earliest stage of the state religion.
2 Rivinus (Augustus Quirinus) paterno nomine Bachmann, Introductio generalis in Rem Herbariam (Lipsiae, 1690).
When, on the 8th of December 1869, it had actually assembled, the world was kept informed of what was going on in the Letters of Quirinus, written by Dollinger and Huber while the debates of the council were proceeding.
His image was carried in the pompa circensis amongst those of the immortal gods, and his statue set up in the temple of Quirinus with the inscription "To the Unconquerable God."
The traditions connect them closely with the beginning of Rome, and with a large number of its early institutions, such as the worship of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus, and the patrician form of marriage (confarreatio).
On the other hand there are two or three forms called Sabine by Latin writers which do appear to show the sound q unchanged, especially the name of the Sabine god Quirinus, which seems to be at least indirectly connected with the name of the Sabine town Cures.
Here also begins his long controversy with Rivinus (Augustus Quirinus Bachmann) which chiefly turned upon Ray's indefensible separation of ligneous from herbaceous plants, and also upon what he conceived to be the misleading reliance that Rivinus placed on the characters of the corolla.
He instituted the flamens (sacred priests) of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus; the virgins of Vesta, to keep the sacred fire burning on the hearth of the city; the Salii, to guard the shield that fell from heaven; the pontifices and augurs, to arrange the rites and interpret the will of the gods; he also divided the handicraftsmen into nine gilds.
Such were the Cento Nuptialis of Ausonius, the sketch of Biblical history which was compiled in the 4th century by Proba Falconia, wife of a Roman proconsul, and the hymns in honour of St Quirinus taken from Virgil and Horace by Metellus, a monk of Tegernsee, in the latter half of the 12th century.
The chief building in the town is the church of St Quirinus, a remarkably fine example of the transition from the Round to the Pointed style; and there are six other Roman Catholic churches, two Protestant churches and a gymnasium, which contains a collection of Roman antiquities.
Effmann, Die St Quirinus Kirche zu Neuss (Dusseldorf, 1890); and Band xx.