The principal product is quinine, the manufacture of which has acq~iired great importance, owing to its use as a specific against malaria.
In 1902 the state took up the sale of quinine at a low price, manufacturing it at the central military pharmaceutical laboratory at Turin.
Koch has suggested that the disinfection of malarial persons by quinine would have the desired effect, but other authorities of greater experience do not consider it practicable.
Quinine still remains the one specific. In serious cases it should not be given in solid form, but in solution by the stomach, rectum, or - better - hypodermically (Manson).
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body (see Acetic Acid).
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
Salicylates are the next safest to quinine of all antipyretics, whilst being much more powerful in all febrile states except malaria.
The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria, since it rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheumatic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the temperature to normal.
As in the case of quinine, the administration of small doses of hydrobromic acid often relieve the milder symptoms.
There are many substances produced by plants which can be synthetically prepared by chemical means, but, as with quinine, the process involved is too costly to enable the synthetic product to compete with the natural product.
That quinine, chloroform, glycerin, alcohol, with others, had no attractive influence on them - negative chemiotaxis.
Numerous rivers flow through the valleys between these spurs, which are the native home of the quinine-yielding cinchona trees.
The production of silk and wine, of coca and quinine; to promote forestry; to improve elementary and higher education - for all which purposes the Ministerio del Fomento is a potent engine; to encourage colonization; and, above all, to place the national credit on a sound basis.
Piperine, conine, atropine, belladonine, cocaine, hyoscyamine and nicotine have been already synthesized; the constitution of several others requires confirmation, while there remain many important alkaloids - quinine, morphine, strychnine, &c. - whose constitution remains unknown.
(3) Quinoline group. The alkaloids of the quina-barks: quinine, &c.; the strychnos bases: strychnine, brucine; and the veratrum alkaloids: veratrine, cevadine, &c.
The bitterness is imparted by such substances as bitter orange rind, gentian, rhubarb, quassia, cascarilla, angostura, quinine and cinchona.
The syrup of iron, quinine and strychnine is used as a tonic.
He also found that chickens that had been given meal moistened with quinine and placed upon glass slips banded black and yellow, afterwards refused to touch meal moistened with water and spread upon the same slips, although they had previously eaten it with readiness off plain coloured slips.
Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
The summer is propagated by the mosquito (Anopheles claviger) marks a new epoch; the most diverse theories as to its origin had hitherto been propounded, but it is now possible to combat it on a definite plan, by draining the marshes, protecting the houses by fine mosquito-proof wire netting (for Anopheles is not active by day), improving the water supply, &c., while for those who have fever, quinine (now sold cheaply by the state) is a great specific. A great improvement is already apparent; and a law carried in 1903 for the Bonifica dell' Agro Romano compels the proprietors within a radius of some 6 m.
In the case of white people exposure to heat of itself frequently causes heat-stroke, but probably in almost all cases of heat hyperpyrexia amongst natives the malarial complication is the exciting cause and therefore with them quinine treatment is all-important.
The sulphate of quinine and the cinchona febrifuge thus produced are issued for the most part to medical officers in the various provinces, to gaols, and to the authorities of native states; but a large and increasing amount is disposed of in the form of 5-grain packets, costing a farthing each, through the medium of the post-offices.
In 1680 he was the constant victim of severe fevers, from which he recovered for a time through the use of quinine prescribed by an English physician.
The governors were directed to regulate religious instruction in secular schools, to prevent horse-stealing, to control subscriptions collected for the holy places in Palestine, to regulate the advertisements of medicines and the printing on cigarette papers, to examine the quality of quinine soap and overlook the cosmetics and other toilet articles - such as soap, starch, brillantine, tooth-brushes and insect-powder - provided by chemists.
When the attack is periodic the administration of a large dose of quinine two or three hours previous to the usual time of the seizure will often mitigate, and may even prevent the paroxysm.
The Bolivian product is of the best because of the high percentage of quinine sulphate which it yields.
In 1820 Pelletier and Caventou proved that the cinchonino of Gomez contained two alkaloids, which they named quinine and cinchonine.
For this reason those barks which, like C. Calisaya, C. officinalis, and C. Ledgeriana, contain but little colouring matter are preferred, the quinine being more easily extracted from them in a colourless form.
The sulphates of the alkaloids thus obtained are not equally soluble in water, and the quinine sulphate can be separated by fractional crystallization, being less soluble in water than the other sulphates.
Quinine of commerce is the neutral sulphate,C20H24N202 H2S04.8H20, which occurs in commerce in the form of very light slender white acicular crystals.
When prescribed it is generally rendered more soluble in water by the addition of dilute sulphuric acid or of citric acid, one drop of the former or 4ths of a grain of the latter being used for each grain of the quinine sulphate.
Quinine is precipitated from its solution by alkalis and their carbonates.
The acid solution of sulphate of quinine is fluorescent, especially when dilute; and it is laevo-rotatory.
This test answers with a solution containing only 1 part of quinine in 5000, or in a solution containing not more than part if bromine be used instead of chlorine.
The other alkaloids are distinguished from quinine thus: quinidine resembles quinine, but is dextro-rotatory, and the iodide is very insoluble in water; the solution of cinchonidine, which is laevo-rotatory, does not give the thalleoquin test, nor fluorescence; cinchonine resembles cinchonidine in these respects, but is dextrorotatory.
Commercial sulphate of quinine frequently contains from I tc 10% of cinchonidine sulphate, owing to the use of barks containing it.
The sulphate of cinchonidine is more soluble than that of quinine; and, when 1 part of quinine sulphate suspected to contain it is nearly dissolved in 24 parts of boiling water, the sulphate of quinine crystallizes out on' cooling, and the cinchonidine is found in the clear mother liquor, from which it can be precipitated by a solution of potassium and sodium tartrate.
Sulphate of quinine manufactured from cuprea bark (Remijia pedunculata) may contain from -Do to.
Homoquinine is decomposed on treatment with caustic soda into quinine and a new alkaloid, cupreine, in the proportion of 2 to 3.
Cupreine is soluble in a solution of caustic soda (differing in this respect from quinine), and therefore it is easy to prepare sulphate of quinine perfectly free from either homoquinine or cupreine.
A mixture of the cinchona alkaloids, consisting principally of cinchonidine sulphate, with smaller quantities of the sulphates of quinine and cinchonine, is sold under the name of "quinetum" at a cheaper rate than quinine.
The chemical constitution of quinine and the allied alkaloids is not definitely settled, although certain relationships are well established.
Thus quinine is methoxycinchonine or methylcupreine, cupreine being an oxycinchonine.
OH; cupreine = C19H20N2(OH)21 quinine =C19H20N2(OH) (OCH 3).
C9H6N C02H, whilst quinine gives quininic acid, C9H5(OCH3)(C02H).
The sulphate of quinine used in medicine may contain up to 3% of cinchonidine, but should be free from cinchonine, quinidine and cupreine.
The syrupus ferri phosphatis cum quinina et strychnina (Easton's Syrup) contains IIths of a grain of quinine in each drachm, that is, in each dose.
The small quantity of quinine it contains is conditioned by the solubility of the alkaloid, which is precipitated when this tincture is diluted with water.
The first feature of the internal action of quinine is its intensely bitter taste.