Small quantities of quicksilver, sulphur and iron are obtained.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.
Of quicksilver there are several mines, chiefly in the Palatinate of the Rhine; and small quantities of copper, manganese and cobalt are obtained.
It furnishes about two-fifths of the quicksilver of the world.
Amalgamation is based on the property of quicksilver to extract the silver from finely-pulverized ore and collect it in the form of an amalgam.
When the rock has been separated from the amalgam by a washing operation, the quicksilver is recovered by distillation in an iron retort, and the remaining crude retortsilver melted into bars and shipped to a refinery, which removes the impurities, the leading one of which is copper.
Complex silver minerals (sulph-arsenides and antimonides) which are difficult to amalgamate must be made amenable to quicksilver, and the simplest way of doing this is to convert the silver into chloride.
The loss of quicksilver in the process is large, owing to the formation of calomel which is not saved.
The process is suited to easy ores and a region where the climate is warm and dry, and horseor mule-power, labour and quicksilver are cheaper than fuel and water.
After grinding, the muller is raised and quicksilver added, and the silver up to 81.04% then amalgamated in 4 hours.
In amalgamating without the use of chemicals, finely divided iron, worn from the shoes and dies in the stamp-mill and the pan, decomposes cerargyrite and argentite, and the liberated silver is taken up by the quicksilver; the process is hastened by adding salt.
This salt, insoluble in water but soluble in brine, also acts upon argentite (Ag 2 S-+-Cu 2 C1 2 =2AgC1±-CuS±-Cu) and pyrargyrite (2Ag 3 SbS 3 -I-Cu 2 C12 = 2AgC1 +Ag 2 S +2Ag +2CuS +Sb2S3), and would give with silver sulphide in the presence of quicksilver, the Patioreaction; metallic silver, cupric sulphide, and mercurous chloride (2Ag 2 S+Cu 2 C1 2 +2Hg=4Ag+2CuS+Hg 2 C1 2), but the iron decomposes the quicksilver salt, setting free the quicksilver.
The loss in quicksilver is small, as there is no chemical loss inherent in the process; the yield is relatively high, but the bullion is liable to be low-grade, on account of copper being precipitated and amalgamated.
The amalgam is dipped out from the bowl into a canvas bag (the strainer), to separate the excess of the quicksilver from the pasty amalgam, which is then retorted and melted.
It permits coarser crushing of the ore, the cost of plant is lower, the power required is nominal, the cost of chemicals is lower than that of quicksilver, less water is necessary, and the extraction is often higher, as silver arsenate and antimoniate are readily soluble, while they are not decomposed in amalgamation.
Azuay is an elevated mountainous district with a great variety of climates and products; among the latter are silver, quicksilver, wheat, Indian corn, barley, cattle, wool, cinchona and straw hats.
Iron ore, platinum, lead, quicksilver and cobalt have been obtained in the state in merchantable quantities, and there is some zinc ore in the Cascade Range.
Such a plane is realized in the surface of a liquid, a basin of quicksilver, for example.
5) is the direction of a ray, either from a heavenly body or from a terrestrial point, impinging at 0 upon the surface of quicksilver, and reflected in the direction OR, the vertical line is the bisector OZ, of the angle POR.
If the point P is so adjusted over the quicksilver that the ray is reflected back Z 0 0 FIG.
When the basin of quicksilver is used, the telescope, either before or after being directed toward P, is pointed directly downwards, so that the observer mounting above it looks through it into the reflecting surface.
The sun was associated with gold, the moon with silver, Jupiter with electrum, Saturn with lead, Venus with copper, and so on, while the continued influence of astrological motives is to be seen in the association of quicksilver, upon its discovery at a comparatively late period, with Mercury, because of its changeable character as a solid and a liquid.
Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
12 1920) Italy acquired a frontier considerably farther east than the Wilson Line, and including the quicksilver mines of Istria, the watershed of the Julian Alps as far as Snjeznik (Monte Nevoso), almost all Istria with Abbazia and Volosca, and a narrow strip of shore connecting it with Fiume.
The mines yield iron, coal, quicksilver and salt.
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
The methods formerly employed in reducing ores were lixiviation and amalgamation with quicksilver, but modern methods are gradually coming into use.
Quicksilver is found at Huancavelica, Chonta (Ancachs), and in the department of Puno.
Near Huancavelica is the famous quicksilver mine of Santa Barbara, with its subterranean church of San Rosario, hewn from the native cinnabar-bearing rock.
Antimony, quicksilver, stone, marble, slate and potter's clay are also worked, and there are brine springs in the Hellweg and mineral springs at Lippspringe, Oynhausen, &c.
It owed its origin in the latter half of the 17th century to the discovery of salt-springs, and now produces coal, salt, alabaster and quicksilver, and manufactures steel rails.
The city's industrial establishments include smelting works and a large number of reduction works, among which are some of the largest and most important in the republic. It was here that Bartolome de Medina discovered the "patio" process of reducing silver ores with quicksilver in 1 557, and his old hacienda de beneficio is still to be seen.
But he made no reference to his work till 1783, when he presented to the Royal Society some "Observations on Mr Hutchins's experiments for determining the degree of cold at which quicksilver freezes."
It includes diamonds, the majority of which, however, are of a somewhat yellow colour, gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, copper, iron, tin, antimony, mineral oils, sulphur, rock-salt, marble and coal.
Gold, petroleum, copper, borax and its products, clays, quicksilver and silver lead, in order of importance, representing some fourfifths of the total.
Quicksilver has been mined at Azogues, in the province of Canar, and is also to be found in Azuay.
Copper and quicksilver were mined in the Zizima district, north of Iconium.
Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.
Most of the quicksilver produced in the United States comes from California (86% of the total in 1908), but a considerable quantity M comes from Texas, and small amounts are produced CIWJV.
Copper, silver, lead, and zinc are found in considerable quantities, and as regards quicksilver, Kwei-chow is probably the richest country in the world.
Distant by road, and the New Almaden quicksilver mine (the greatest producer in California and long among the greatest in the world) is about 14 m.