The chief trees of the country are the aspen (Populus tremuloides), the ash-leaved maple (Negundo aceroides), oak (Quercus alba), elm (Ulmus Americana), and many varieties of willow.
The iron tree (Parrotia persica), the silk acacia, Carpinus betulus, Quercus iberica, the box tree and the walnut flourish freely, as well as the sumach, the pomegranate, and the Gleditschia caspica.
Scierophyllous Plants.These are plants with evergreen leathery ives, and typical of tropical, sub-tropical, and warm temperate gions; e.g., Quercus Suber, Ilex Aquifohium, Hedera Helix, Eucalyps Globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis.
In these islands, we find forests i or woods of oak (Quercus Robur and Q.
Torreya, now confined to North America and Japan, still lingered,- as did Ocotea, now profusely developed in the tropics, but in north temperate regions only existing in the Canaries: the evergreen oaks, so characteristic of the Miocene, were reduced to the existing Quercus hex.
Quercus Robur has left no trace in the Tertiary deposits of Europe and it is most nearly all~d to east Asiatic species.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
China has 66 species of Quercus, 35 of Vitis, 2 of Aesculus, 42 of Acer, 33 Magnoliaceae (including two species of Liriodendron), 12 Anonaceae, 71 Ternstroemiaceae (including the tea-plant), and 4 of Clethra, which has a solitary western representative in Madeira.
Perhaps even more striking is the absence 01 Cupuliferae; Quercus, in particular, which from Tertiary times ha~ been a conspicuous northern type and in Malavan tropical condition~ has developed others which are widely divergent.
And it is interesting to note that while the tropical forms of Quercus failed to reach Australia from Malaya, the temperate Fagus crept in by a back door.
Of Cupuliferae, Quercus in three species only reaches Colombia, but Fagus, with only a single one in North America, is represented by several from Chile southwards and thence extends to New Zealand and Tasmania.
The northern Quercus, arrested at the tropic in the new world, expanded in that of the old into new and striking races.
The ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the oak make their appearance, the latter (Quercus pedunculata) reaching in isolated groups and single trees as far N.
Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
The mountains are clothed, where the fall of rain is abundant, with forests of Quercus, Fagus, Ulmus, Acer, Carpinus and Corylus, and various Coniferae.
Rev. xviii., p. 368) explains Quirinus as the oak-god (quercus), and Quirites as the men of the oaken spear.
The leaf is subjected to the smoke produced by burning in the green condition leafy branches of species of evergreen oaks (Quercus spp.).
But in the Majerda Mountains there are dense primeval forests lingering to the present day, and consisting chiefly of the cork oak (Quercus ruber), and two other species of oak (Quercus mirbeckii and Q.
The great mass of the vegetation, however, is of the low-growing type (maquis or garrigue of the western Mediterranean), with small and stiff leaves, and frequently thorny and aromatic, as for example the ilex (Quercus coccifera), Smilax, Cistus, Lentiscus, Calycotome, &c. (2) Next comes, from 1600 to 6500 ft., the mountain region, which may also be called the forest region, still exhibiting sparse woods and isolated trees wherever shelter, moisture and the inhabitants have permitted their growth.
(3) Into the alpine region (6200 to 10,400 ft.) penetrate a few very stunted oaks (Quercus subalpina), the junipers already mentioned and a barberry (Berberis cretica), which sometimes spreads into close thickets.
The polythalamous gall of Aphilothrix radicis, found on the roots of old oak-trees, may attain the size of a man's fist; the galls of another Cynipid, Andricus occultus, Tschek, 6 which occurs on the male flowers of Quercus sessiliflora, is 2 millimetres, or barely a line, in length.
Noix de Galle), are produced on Quercus fectoria, a variety of Q.
S On the Cecidomyids of Quercus Cerris, see Fitch, Entomologist, xi.
The gall known as Erineum quercinum, on the leaves of Quercus Cerris, were taken for cryptogamic structures.
The Coast Range is heavily forested in the north, where rainfall is abundant in all seasons; but its lower ranges and valleys have a scanty tree growth in the south, where the rainfall is very light: here grow redwoods (Sequoia semperzirens) and live oaks (Quercus agrifolia).
Quercus Ilex - Holm-Oak.
The oak (Quercus), of which some sixty distinct species are known, grows freely in Europe and America.
Several kinds yield valuable timber: in England the two best-known varieties are Quercus pedunculata and Quercus sessiliflora.
A notable further instance of the connexion of the western Himalayan flora with that of Europe is the holm oak (Quercus Ilex), which is characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
Agriculture, Evc. - The most important species of the few trees that remain in the island are the Aleppo pine, the Pinus laricio, cypress, cedar, carob, olive and Quercus alnifolia.
South of the southern limit indicated, in the midland district of the great lakes, the oak (Quercus pedunculata) appears as well as pine and fir; and, as much of this area is under cultivation, many other trees have been introduced, as the ash, maple, elm and lime.
Pseudo-piatanus, L.), oak (Quercus ballota, Q- castaneaefolia, Q.
There are many fine tracts of forest, among which may be mentioned the famous convent-wood of Bussaco (q.v.); cork trees are extensively cultivated, Barbary oaks (Quercus ballota, Port.
Oak manna or Gueze-elefi, according to Haussknecht, is collected from the twigs of Quercus Vallonia and Q.
There are two native oaks, Quercus pont'icus and Q.
Cortex, bark, but possibly connected with quercus, oak), the outer layer of the bark of an evergreen species of oak (Quercus Suber).
Includes Quercus (oak), Fagus (beech), Castanea (sweet-chestnut).