Baudrillard, Quatre cents ans de concordat (Paris, 1905); Boulay de la Meurthe, Documents sur la negotiation du concordat et sur les autres rapports de la France avec le Saint-Siege (Paris, 1891-1905); Cardinal Mathieu, Le Concordat de 1801 (Paris, 1903); E.
In 1815 he commanded the Dutch and Belgian contingents, and won high commendations for his courage and conduct at the battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo, at the latter of which he was wounded.
He is the author of La Contre-guerilla franraise au Mexique (1868); L'Elevation et la chute de l'empereur Maximilien (1867); Le Quatre-septembre et le gouvernement de la defense nationale (1872); Mourad V.
His earliest poem is the Livre des quatre dames, written after the battle of Agincourt.
He says: " Si l'on considere le rbgne animal d'apres les principes que nous venons de poser, en se debarassant des prbjuges etablis sur les divisions anciennement admises, en n'ayant egard qu' a l'organisation et a la nature des animaux, et non pas a leur grandeur, a leur utilite, au plus ou morns de connaissance que nous en avons, ni a toutes les autres circonstances accessoires, on trouvera qu'il existe quatre formes principales, quatre plans generaux, si l'on peut s'exprimer ainsi, d'apres lesquels tous les animaux semblent avoir ete modeles et dont les divisions ulterieures, de quelque titre que les naturalistes les aient decorees, ne sont que des modifications assez legeres, fondees sur le developpement, ou l'addition de quelques parties qui ne changent rien a 1'essence du plan."
His education was begun at the College des Quatre Nations, where he obtained a smattering of the classics; but, his artistic talent being already obvious, he was soon placed by his guardian in the studio of Francois Boucher.
Instead of drawing his corps together and retreating en masse up the Fleurus road, Zieten wisely withdrew on two roads, using those to Quatre Bras and Fleurus.
The left wing was directed to push up the Gosselies-Quatre Bras road, and Pajol's cavalry followed the Prussians who retired along the Gilly-Fleurus road.
Prince Bernard, in command of a brigade at Quatre Bras and Frasnes, recognizing the pressing danger that threatened on the Brussels road, retained his position there to check the French advance, instead of drawing off westwards and massing with the rest of his division at Nivelles; and in this action he was firmly supported by his immediate superiors.
It was due to their presence of mind that Wellington maintained his hold on the important strategical point of Quatre Bras on June 15 and 16.
Wellington, owing to his original dispositions and the slowness of his concentration, had only retained a grip on Quatre Bras thanks to the boldness of his subordinates on the spot.
His dispositions on the night of the r5th-16th were skilfully calculated to encourage the allies to mass at Quatre Bras and Sombreffe, and his covering force were pushed sufficiently forward - to Frasnes and Fleurus - to grip whichever ally adventured his army first.
Early on the morning of June r6 Prince Bernard was reinforced at Quatre Bras by the rest of his division (Perponcher's); and Wellington's other troops were now all on the march eastward except the reserve, who were heading southwards and halted at the cross-road of Mt.
Jean until the duke had resolved that their objective should be Quatre Bras.
Blucher meanwhile was making his arrangements to hold a position to the south of the Namur-Nivelles road and thus maintain uninterrupted communication with Wellington at Quatre Bras.
To assist this operation the reserve would move at first to Fleurus to reinforce Grouchy, should he need assistance in driving back Blucher's troops; but, once in possession of Sombreffe, the emperor would swing the reserve westwards and join Ney, who, it was supposed, would have in the meantime mastered Quatre Bras.
In pursuance of this object Ney, to whom Kellermann was now attached, was to mass at Quatre Bras and push an advanced guard 6 m.
Ney spent the morning in massing his two corps, and in reconnoitring the enemy at Quatre Bras, who, as he was informed, had been reinforced.
He was still at Charleroi when, between 9 and To A.M., further news reached him from the left that considerable hostile forces were visible at Quatre Bras.
Napoleon ordered Ney to master Quatre Bras, and added that the emperor would attack the corps which he saw in front of him.
Meanwhile, Wellington, having reached Quatre Bras in the morning, wrote to him to concert the day's operations; then, as all was quiet in his front, he rode over to meet Blucher at Brye.
The two chiefs, surveying the French army in their front, considered that no serious force was in front of Quatre Bras, and Wellington terminated the interview with the conditional promise that he would bring his army to Blucher's assistance at Ligny, if he was not attacked himself.
This promise, of course, was never fulfilled, for Ney employed the duke all day at Quatre Bras; and, furthermore, the duke's tardy concentration made it quite impossible for him to help Blucher directly ontheLignybattlefield.
On his return to Quatre Bras he found that a crisis had already been reached.
Ney had allowed the valuable hours to slip away when he could have stormed Quatre Bras with ease and ensured co operation with his master.
"Ce diable a quatre..." *