Russia until the beginning of the Quaternary period.
" The term drift is now applied generally to the Quaternary deposits, which consist for the most part of gravel, sand, loam or brickearth and clay; it naturally refers to strata laid down at some distance from the rocks to whose destruction they are largely due; but, although applied to river deposits, the word drift is more appropriately used in reference to the accumulations of the Glacial period.
The thick Quaternary, or Post-Pliocene, deposits which cover nearly all Russia were for a long time a puzzle to geologists.
Such being the characters of the Quaternary deposits in Russia, the majority of Russian geologists now adopt the opinion that Russia was covered, as far as the above limits, with an immense ice-sheet which crept over central Russia and central Germany from Scandinavia and N.
- Remains of Palaeolithic man, contemporary with the large Quaternary mammals, are few in Russia; they have been discovered only in Poland, Poltava and Voronezh, and perhaps also on the Oka.
4 (June 1895); idem., The Geological History of Lake Lahontan, a Quaternary Lake of North-western Nevada (Washington, 1885), U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, No.
The older formations are nearly all overlaid by deposits of the Quaternary period, which will be described last.
Volcanic activity took place around its shores at the end of the Tertiary or during the Quaternary Age, and great streams of lava cover the Sayan and Khamar-daban mountains, as well as the valley of Irkut.
The occurrence of commercially valuable petroleum is, however, comparatively limited, hitherto exploited deposits being confined to rocks younger than the Cambrian and older than the Quaternary, while the majority of developed oilfields have been discovered north of the equator.
If a compound contains two atoms it is termed a binary compound, if three a ternary, if four a quaternary, and so on.
NH 2; secondary, R2: NH; and tertiary, R3: N; the oxamines, R 3 N :0, are closely related to the tertiary ammonias, which also unite with a molecule of alkyl iodide to form salts of quaternary ammonium bases, e.g.
Kryst., 1902, 36, p. 268) on ammonium and the quaternary ammonium iodides, of J.
Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.
For instance, those of a ternary form involve two classes which may be geometrically interpreted as point and line co-ordinates in a plane; those of a quaternary form involve three classes which may be geometrically interpreted as point, line and plane coordinates in space.
The great Hungarian plain is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, through which rise the Bakony-wald and the Mecsek ridge near Pecs (Funfkirchen).
(2) The llanos, covered by deposits of Quaternary or late Tertiary age.
The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.
They are ionized in aqueous solution to a much greater extent than ammonia, the quaternary ammonium bases being the most ionized, and the secondary bases being more strongly ionized than the primary or tertiary bases.
By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
Hofmann is as follows: the mixture is distilled with caustic potash, when the primary, secondary and tertiary amines distil over, and the quaternary ammonium salt remains behind unaffected.
If the nitrogen atom in the quaternary ammonium salts be in combination with four different groups, then the molecule is asymmetrical, and the salt can be resolved into optically active enantiamorphous isomerides.
The greater part of Tunisia is composed of sandstones, marls and loosely stratified deposits belonging to the Pliocene and Quaternary periods.
MOULIN QUIGNON, a quarry near Abbeville, France, celebrated for the discovery in 1863 by Boucher de Perthes of a human jaw-bone believed to be referable to the Quaternary period.
Hatcher, demonstrate the Pleistocene nature of the deposits, by which is not necessarily meant older Quaternary, for their horizons have not been differentiated and correlated in South America.
The geological formation of the soil belongs to the Quaternary and Pliocene period in its upper strata, and to the Eocene and Cretaceous in the lower.
Quaternary deposits cover much of the desert regions.'] Minerals.
Their number, as a multiple of four, was prescribed by the quaternary partition of the heavens, fundamental in Chinese astronomy.
It appears to be composed chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks, concealed, in the plains, by Quaternary, and possibly Tertiary, deposits.
Among the Tertiary volcanic rocks those of acid types (granites, granulites) were the first to appear and are developed latitudinally; rocks of intermediate type (dacites, andesites) characterize the Miocene and early Pliocene periods; while the basic rocks (ophites, elaeolite syenites and basalts) attained their maximum in later Pliocene and Quaternary times.
The broad platforms of the hamada are covered with Quaternary deposits.
There seem to have been two periods of eruption, and as some of the lavas have flowed over Quaternary gravels, the latest outbursts must have been of very recent date.
Bones and implements have been found in the Quaternary gravels at Trenton, which have been held by some authorities to prove the presence of Palaeolithic man; but the earliest inhabitants of New Jersey of whom there is any certain record were the Lenni-Lennape or Delaware Indians, a branch of the Algonquian family.
During the Glacial period its glaciers were much larger than at present, whilst during a later portion of the Quaternary period (to judge by the marine fossils found as high as 300 ft.
The low-lying country between the mountain ranges is covered for the most part by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, but Cretaceous beds occur at several localities.
Various other things indicate a separation of the islands from the mainland in quaternary times; since which, owing to the later southward movement on the continent of northern forms in glacial times, there has been a struggle for existence on the mainland from which the islands have largely escaped.
Here in 1856 were discovered in a Quaternary bed in the Feldhofen Cave human remains which have been referred to a type commonly called Neanderthal Man.
De Mortillet to the second stage of his system of cave-chronology, and that synchronous with the third division of the Quaternary period.
Most of the country between the Andes and the sea is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary beds; but the range of hills which runs north-west from Guayaquil is formed of Cretaceous and porphyritic rocks similar to those of the Andes.
There is a central region, roughly triangular in shape, with its base resting upon the Quaternary K Triassic Tertiary Carboniferous q & Metamorphic 7 Jurassic Aegean Sea and its apex in Servia.
That a subsequent land connexion took place, however, by the elevation of the sea-bed there is abundant evidence to show; and the occurrence of the remains of African Quaternary mammals, such as Elephas meridionalis, E.
A glance at a geological map of Germany will show that the greater part of Prussia and of German Poland is covered by Quaternary deposits.