- These qualities can be readily judged by inspection of the glass in pieces of considerable thickness, and they may be quantitatively measured by means of the spectro-photometer.
It is different, however, with physical properties, density, &c.; at present we have no fixed rules which enable us to predict quantitatively the differences in physical properties corresponding to a given difference in structure, the only general rule being that those differences are not large.
A physicist, however, does more than merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter.
He suggested that the method was applicable for quantitatively estimating glucose, but its acceptance only followed after H.
Tin is generally quantitatively estimated as the dioxide.
This hypothesis he verified quantitatively by experiments, performed at the end of 1761.
Modern oceanography has found means to calculate quantitatively the circulatory movements produced by wind and the distribution of temperature and salinity not only at the surface but in deep water.
The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
Potassium ferrocyanide may be estimated quantitatively in acid solution by oxidation to ferricyanide by potassium permanganate (in absence of other reducing agents): 5K 4 Fe(NC)s + KMnO 4 + 4H2S04= 5K 3 Fe(NC)s + 3K2S04+MnS04+4H20.
It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
Chromium in the form of its salts may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation from boiling solutions with a slight excess of ammonia, and boiling until the free ammonia is nearly all expelled.
Beryllium is estimated quantitatively by precipitation with ammonia, and ignition to oxide.
Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.
In virtue of the remaining tables it rejects any suggestion qualitatively or quantitatively inadequate.
Chlorides can be estimated quantitatively by conversion into silver chloride, or if in the form of alkaline chlorides (in the absence of other metals, and of any free acids) by titration with standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as an indicator.
In addition to this he provided the means for studying the phenomena not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, by the profoundly ingenious instruments he invented for that purpose.
In physiological science he investigated quantitatively the phenomena of animal heat, and he was one of the earliest in the field of animal electricity.
Barium is estimated quantitatively by conversion into the sulphate.
Antimony may be estimated quantitatively by conversion into the sulphide; the precipitate obtained is dried at too° C. and heated in a current of carbon dioxide, or it may be converted into the tetroxide by nitric acid.
We know nothing quantitatively of the radiations from a nebulous body; and it is quite possible that the loss of radiant energy in this early stage was very small; but it is at least as certain as any other physical inference that 17,000,000 years ago the earth itself was of its present dimensions, a comparatively old body with sea and living creatures upon it, and it is impossible to believe that the sun's radiations were wholly different; but, if they were not, they have been maintained from some other source than contraction.
This is Spinoza's theory of the infinitely infinite," the limiting notion of infinity being of a numerical, quantitative series, each term of which is a qualitative determination itself quantitatively little, e.g.
A line which is quantitatively unlimited (i.e.
But the ultimate conception of understanding, that of the world of objects, quantitatively determined, and standing in relation of mutual reciprocity to one another, is not a final ground of explanation.
Mag., December 1852), to make experiments to verify quantitatively the relation P/T =dE/dT between the Peltier effect and the thermoelectric power.
The divine omnipotence is quantitatively represented by the sum of the forces of nature, and qualitatively distinguished from them only as the unity of infinite causality from the multiplicity of its finite phenomena.
Wollaston's theory of moral evil as consisting in the practical contradiction of a true proposition, closely resembles the most paradoxical part of Clarke's doctrine, and was not likely to approve itself to the strong common sense of Butler; but his statement of happiness or pleasure as a " justly desirable " end at which every rational being " ought " to aim corresponds exactly to Butler's conception of self-love as a naturally governing impulse; while' the " moral arithmetic " with which he compares pleasures and pains, and endeavours to make the notion of happiness quantitatively precise, is an anticipation of Benthamism.
The Jesuits came in the r6th century, but were more successful quantitatively than qualitatively; in the 18th century the Danish coast mission on the coast of Tranquebar made the first Protestant advance, Bartholomaus, Ziegenbalg (1683-1719), Plutschau and Christian Friedrich Schwartz (1726-1798) being its great names.
Albert and Aquinas agree in declaring that the principle of individuation is to be found in matter, not, however, in matter as a formless substrate but in determinate matter (materia signata), which is explained to mean matter quantitatively determined in certain respects.
The same absorbent' quantitatively takes up any halogen and sulphur which may be present.