The British government, however, in the interests of the continental powers, urged an immediate advance, so on the night of the 9th of November 1813 he brought up his right from the Pyrenean passes to the northward of Maya and towards the Nivelle.
The Aude, its principal river, has almost its entire length in the department, and its lower course, together with its tributary the Fresquel, forms the dividing line between the Montagne Noire and the Pyrenean system.
8,000 men under Clausel and Decaen guarded the Pyrenean frontier; whilst Lamarque led 10,000 men into La Vendee to quell the insurrection in that quarter.
Andorra is the sole surviving specimen of the independence possessed in medieval times by the warlike inhabitants of many Pyrenean valleys.
The claims of the bishopric dated from Carolingian times, and the independence of Andorra, like most other Pyrenean anomalies, has been traditionally ascribed to Charlemagne (742-814).
The Basques who now inhabit both sides of the Pyrenean range are probably the last representatives of the Iberians, who came from Spain to settle between the Mediterranean and the Bay of Biscay.
Thus Villeroy thought fit to add still further to the price already paid to triumphant Madrid and Vienna by disbanding the army, breaking the treaty of Brusol, and abandoning the Protestant princes beyond the Rhine and the XIII~ trans-Pyrenean Moriscos.
This threefold division is only valid so far as the elevation of the Pyrenean chain is concerned, and does not accurately represent its geological structure or general configuration.
Four conspicuous features of Pyrenean scenery are the absence of great lakes, such as fill the lateral valleys of the Alps; the rarity and great elevation of passes; the large number of the mountain torrents locally called gaves, which often form lofty waterfalls, surpassed in Europe only by those of Scandinavia; and the frequency with which the upper end of a valley assumes the form of a semicircle of precipitous cliffs, locally called a cirque.
There is a distinct species of ibex (Capra pyrenaica) confined to the range, while the Pyrenean desman or water-mole (Mygale pyrenaica) is found only in some of the streams of the northern slopes of these mountains, the onlyother member of this genus being confined to the rivers of southern Russia.
Among the other peculiarities of the Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariege, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus and Adelops.
The ethnology, folk-lore, institutions and history of the Pyrenean region form an interesting study: see Andorra; Aragon; Basques; Bearn; Catalonia; Navarre.
Archean rocks are exposed in the north of the Peninsula, particu larly along the great Pyrenean axis, in Galicia, Estremadura, tb Sierra Morena, the Sierra Nevada and Serrania de Ronda.
The oldest Palaeozoi strata are referred, from their included fossils, to the Cambrian Ordovician and Silurian systems. They range through a vas region of Andalusia, Estremadura, Castile, Salamanca, Leon arii Asr,urias, and along the flanks of the Pyrenean and Cantabria~ chain.
The higher members comprise massive hippurite limestones, and in the Pyrenean district representatives of the upper subdivisions of the system, including the Danian.
He inherited, or Sancho el Mayor1000-1035acquired, superiority over the central Pyrenean regions of Aragon and Sobrarbe.