ALCMAEONIDAE, a noble Athenian family, claiming descent from Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor, who emigrated from Pylos to Athens at the time of the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus.
The news of this disaster, and of the fall of Pylos and Navarino that followed, struck terror into the Greek government; and in answer to popular clamour Kolokotrones was taken from prison and placed at the head of the army.
When he reached manhood, he visited Pylos and Sparta to make inquiries about his father, who had been absent for nearly twenty years.
After a naval engagement (see Pylos) a body of Spartan hoplites were cut off on Sphacteria.
In Greece these gains were compensated by the loss of Pylos and Nisaea.
In view of the disastrous issue of the war, it is important to notice that on three occasions - (a) after Pylos, (b) after Cyzicus, (c) after Arginusae - Athens refused formal peace proposals from Sparta.
(b) The peace proposals of 410 are given by Diodorus, who says that the ephor Endius proposed that a peace should be made on the basis of uti possidetis, except that Athens should evacuate Pylos and Cythera, and Sparta, Decelea.
34, were on the same lines, except that Athens no longer had Pylos and Cythera, and had lost practically half her empire.
In spite of its long coast-line, Messenia has no good harbours except the Bay of Pylos (Navarino), and has never played an important part in Greek naval history.
Then came an Aeolo-Minyan immigration, which apparently extended to Messenia, though the Pylos of Nestor almost certainly lay in Triphylia, and not at the site which in historic times bore that name.
In the Homeric poems eastern Messenia is represented as under the rule of Menelaus of Sparta, while the western coast is under the Neleids of Pylos, but after Menelaus's death the Messenian frontier was pushed eastwards as far as Taygetus.
Heracles, whom Zeus had originally intended to be ruler of Argos, Lacedaemon and Messenian Pylos, had been supplanted by the cunning of Hera, and his intended possessions had fallen into the hands of Eurystheus, king of Mycenae.
In Messenia they were reputed immigrant founders of Pylos, and were connected with the seafaring Taphians and Teleboans of Homer, and distinguished from the Pelasgians; in Lacedaemon and in Leucas they were believed to be aboriginal.
Pelias expelled Neleus, who migrated to Messenia, where he became king of Pylos (Apollodorus i.
North of Sphagia is the rocky headland of Pylos or Coryphasium, called in modern times Palaeo-Navarino or Palaeokastro, from the Venetian ruins on its summit.
Most scholars, ancient and modern, have identified this with the Homeric Pylos, the home of Neleus and Nestor,and a cave on the north slope of Coryphasium is pointed out as that in which Hermes hid the stolen cattle of Apollo.
348 sqq.) argued that the Pylos of Nestor must be the place of that name in Triphylia.
After the Dorian migration Pylos declined, and it is referred to by Thucydides (iv.
Though Pylos should have been ceded to Sparta under the terms of the peace of Nicias (421 B.C.) it was retained by the Athenians until the Spartans recaptured it early in 409 B.C. (Diodorus xiii.
In the middle ages the name Pylos was replaced by that of Avarino ('A(3apvos) or Navarino, derived from a body of Avars who settled there; the current derivation from the Navarrese Company, who entered Greece in 1381 and built a castle at this spot, cannot now be maintained (Eng.
The operations at Pylos, described by Thucydides iv.
Though differing on many points, they agree in thinking (I) that the island of Sphagia is the ancient Sphacteria, Palaeokastro the ancient Coryphasium or Pylos; (2) that in 425 B.C. the lagoon of Osman Aga was navigable and communicated by a navigable channel with the Bay of Navarino; (3) that Thucydides, if the MS. reading is correct, underestimates the length of the island, which he gives as 15 stades instead of 24 (nearly 3 m.), and also the breadth of the southern channel between it and the mainland.